Product Details

Kosher. Naturally gluten-free. Suitable for vegetarians.

Validated in human clinical trials, Mannatech’s Ambrotose AO product is one of the most effective antioxidant supplements on the market today.  Ambrotose AO capsules, which contain a prudent blend of antioxidant nutrients, have been shown to increase serum Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC) in healthy subjects.*

To date, 46 patents have been issued, granted, and validated for the Ambrotose AO formulation.

Three clinical trials have validated the benefits of Ambrotose AO capsules, one of which was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled human clinical trial.

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Ingredients

Functional

  • Aloe vera (inner leaf gel powder)

    Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder  is the powder obtained from the freeze-dried gel from the leaves of the aloe vera plant, Aloe barbadensis.

    For centuries, the plant aloe vera has been used by cultures for its beneficial effects on human health 1. Today aloe vera gel continues to be used in supplements, foods, beverages, and cosmetics. Aloe leaves consist of two major parts, the outer leaf epidermis and the inner leaf gel, which are very different in their chemical composition and properties. Aloe gel is obtained from the inner portion of the leaves. Aloe gel is rich in nutrients and contains an abundant supply of glycoproteins and mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, galactose, arabinose, fucose, glucosamine, fructose, rhamnose and xylose 2.

    Much of the health benefits observed by the use of aloe vera gel may be attributed to its high molecular weight polysaccharides. Before a process was developed to stabilize aloe vera gel or extracts, fresh preparations were regarded as being required for any therapeutic efficacy 3. It has now been shown that careful drying of aloe vera gel can retain the polysaccharide content important for producing many of its health benefits 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 1996.
    2. Duncan, C., Ramberg, J., and Sinnott, R. Striking differences in Aloe vera gel carbohydrate composition, molecular weight and particle size distributions following processing will not be addressed by dietary supplement GMPs. Poster Presentation at the 5th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 17-20, 2008, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.
    3. Gjerstad G, Riner TD. Current status of aloe as a cure-all. Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health 1968;140:58-64.
    4. Ni Y, Turner D, Yates KM, Tizard I. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:1745-55.
  • Australian bush plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana) (fruit)

    Australian bush plum, or Kakadu plum, is the fruit of a small deciduous tree, Terminalia ferdinandiana, found in northwestern Australia. Kakadu plums have been a food and medicinal source for aboriginal people for thousands of years 1. With an average vitamin C content of 3.0%–3.5% (range = 0.2%–5.9%), the bush plum is believed to be the single natural food source with the highest vitamin C content in the world 2. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration accepted the Australian bush plum as a New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) in 2005.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Isaacs J. Bush Food. Aboriginal Food and Herbal Medicine. The Rocks, Australia: Landsdowne Publishing Pty Ltd, 1997.
    2. Woods B. Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana). The Australian New Crops Newsletter (July 10). 1998.
  • Broccoli (flower/stalk)

    Broccoli. The leaves and stem of broccoli, Brassica oleracea italica, are an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin C. Broccoli also contains the additional nutrients protein, fiber, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid and biotin, as well as bioflavonoids 1. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant properties.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are biologically inactive, sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the biologically active metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Broccoli has a high glucosinolate content compared to other cruciferous vegetables, and broccoli extracts have a particularly high concentration of sulforaphane 3, 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    3. Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S A 1992;89:2399-403.
    4. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Brussels sprout (aerial part)

    Brussels sprout is a cruciferous vegetable closely related to the cabbage and a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. The sprouts are named for the area in which they were first cultivated sometime around the 15th century, Brussels, Belgium 1. Brussels sprouts are an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin K, and a good source of manganese. They are also a source of riboflavin, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, dietary fiber, protein, vitamin A, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate and potassium 2. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant activities.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 3. Brussels sprouts have a particularly high glucosinolate content compared to other cruciferous vegetables 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Cabbage (leaf)

    Cabbage is a cruciferous vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Cabbage ranks fifth in the world as a vegetable crop. The U.S. is one of the leading cabbage-producing countries, where about 15% of the total crop is made into sauerkraut and the rest is marketed fresh 1. Cabbage is an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin K, as well as a source of dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate and manganese 2.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 3. Cabbage has a high glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    3. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    4. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Carrot (root)

    Carrot. The edible roots of the carrot plant, Dacus carota, are one of the world’s leading vegetable crops. Carrots are a member of the parsley family, Apiaceae or Umbelliferae, and are one of the richest vegetable sources of vitamin A and beta-carotene 1. Carrots are also a good source of vitamin K and a source of vitamin C, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, manganese, dietary fiber and potassium 2. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant activities.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Cauliflower (flower/stalk)

    Cauliflower is a cruciferous vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. The edible part of cauliflower is its large flower head, which is usually white but can also be colored light green or purple. Cauliflower is an excellent source of vitamin C and a good source of vitamin K, as well as a source of dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, pantothenic acid, potassium and manganese 1.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Cauliflower has a moderate glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    3. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Garlic (bulb)

    Garlic, a member of the onion family Alliaceae, is an herb that has been used as a medicinal agent and a seasoning for many centuries 1. Garlic is an excellent source of calcium, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and manganese and a good source of protein, copper and phosphorus 2. Many of the health benefits of garlic are attributed to its sulfur-containing compounds – thiosulfinates, sulfoxides and dithiins – which are also responsible for its distinctive odor 3. Garlic and its derivatives are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as food additives (21CFR184.1317) 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    3. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    4. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Ghatti gum

    Ghatti gum, a mixture of complex polysaccharides, comes from the bark of Anogeissus latifolia, a large tree native to India and Sri Lanka. Monosaccharide constituents include arabinose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucuronic acid. Ghatti gum is used in supplements, foods, drugs and cosmetics. It contains as much as 80% soluble dietary fiber 1.

    Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon 2. Test tube studies have demonstrated the fermentation of ghatti gum by the beneficial human bacteria species Bifidobacterium 3,4. Ghatti gum is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is permitted for use as a food (21CFR184.1333).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Glicksman M. Gum Ghatti (Indian gum). In: Glicksman M, ed. Food Hydrocolloids. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1983:31-7.
    2. Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.
    3. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
    4. Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.
  • Grape skin extract

    Grape skin extract. Grapes, the fruit of the grape vine Vitis vinifera, are the leading fruit crop in the world. Although they are popular as a fresh fruit, grapes are also used to make juices, jams, jelly, raisins and wine 1. Many health benefits provided by grapes and their products are attributed to their abundant polyphenols. The polyphenols in grapes include resveratrol and flavonoids: quercetin (and its glycoside, rutin), kaempferol, anthocyanins, tannins and myricetin. These compounds are present in the skins, seeds and stems of the grape and many demonstrate potent antioxidant activity 2. Grapes also contain plant acids, sugars, amino acids, minerals and small amounts of vitamins C and E 3, 4. Grape skin extract is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the coloring of beverages and other foods (21CFR73.170) 5.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Torres JL, Varela B, Garcia MT et al. Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:7548-55.
    3. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
    4. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. J Clin Lab Anal. 1997;11:287-313.
    5. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Green tea extract (leaf)

    Green tea extract is made from the leaves of the evergreen tree, Camellia sinensis. Green, black and oolong teas all come from the leaves of the same plant; their unique flavors and properties are the result of different processing methods. For green tea, the leaves are steamed, rolled and dried. This process inactivates the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, thus preserving the four principal polyphenol catechins in tea: epicatechin (EC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). EGCG is the most abundant, accounting for 50-80% of catechins. When black tea is processed these polyphenols are oxidized, yielding other catechins, primarily theaflavins and thearubigins 1. A typical brewed cup (240 ml) of green tea can contain up to 300 mg catechins 2 and 30 mg caffeine 3 and also contains trace elements and vitamins.

    Tea has been used by humans for thousands of years, first as a medicinal herb and then as a beverage. Today, it ranks second only to water as the world’s most popular beverage 4. In a recent review, subjects drinking tea consistently reported improvements attention, alertness and arousal following tea intake and there were also indications of improved work performance and creativity 5. Because populations in which tea is regularly consumed appear to enjoy longer and healthier lives, 6 scientists have been interested in better understanding how tea might exert such effects. The flavonoid compounds, particularly the catechins, are thought to be responsible for the majority of green tea’s health benefits7,8,9,10.

    Intake of green tea, green tea extracts or EGCG have also shown promise for human subjects in increasing thermogenesis 11 and improving or maintaining a healthy body composition12. In overweight adults, intake of EGCG has increased fat oxidation 13,14,15, and a green tea extract increased whole body fat utilization during exercise in healthy normal BMI men 16. In addition, intake of green tea extracts or EGCG have supported healthy blood glucose/insulin levels in human subjects 17,18,19.

    The antioxidant properties of tea components have been studied extensively. These molecules are free radical and oxy species interceptors, iron chelators, enzymatic radical generator inhibitors, electron donors, and superoxide radical scavengers 20. Most antioxidant compounds are active in either the lipid or aqueous portion of cells. EGCG is unique in that it is a potent antioxidant in both aqueous and lipid environments 21. The antioxidant potential of EGCG is far greater than that of vitamin E and/or vitamin C 22. Green tea constituents may also work synergistically with other antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C 22,23.

    Tea is considered to be safe when used orally in low or moderate amounts (up to approximately eight cups daily).

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng X. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annu.Rev Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2002;42:25-54.
    2. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. 2.1, 1-128. 2007.
    3. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com . 2014.
    4. Yang CS, Hong J. Annu.Rev Nutr. 2013;33:161-81
    5. Einother SJ, Martens VE. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:1700S-8S.
    6. Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K et al. JAMA 2006;296:1255-65.
    7. Islam MA. Cardiovascular effects of green tea catechins: progress and promise. Recent Pat Cardiovasc.Discov. 2012;7:88-99.
    8. Thavanesan N. The putative effects of green tea on body fat: an evaluation of the evidence and a review of the potential mechanisms. Br J Nutr 2011;106:1297-309.
    9. Song J, Xu H, Liu F, Feng L. Tea and cognitive health in late life: current evidence and future directions. J Nutr Health Aging 2012;16:31-4.
    10. Mak JC. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2012;39:265-73.
    11. Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation. Physiol Behav. 2010;100:42-6.
    12. Huang J, Wang Y, Xie Z, Zhou Y, Zhang Y, Wan X. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68:1075-87.
    13. Thielecke F, Rahn G, Bohnke J et al. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:704-13.
    14. Boschmann M, Thielecke F. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26:389S-95S.
    15. Ota N, Soga S, Shimotoyodome A et al. Effects of combination of regular exercise and tea catechins intake on energy expenditure in humans. J Health Sci 2005;51:233-6.
    16. Ichinose T, Nomura S, Someya Y, Akimoto S, Tachiyashiki K, Imaizumi K. Effect of endurance training supplemented with green tea extract on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21:598-605.
    17. Bogdanski P, Suliburska J, Szulinska M, Stepien M, Pupek-Musialik D, Jablecka A. Nutr Res. 2012;32:421-7.
    18. Suliburska J, Bogdanski P, Szulinska M, Stepien M, Pupek-Musialik D, Jablecka A. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;149:315-22.
    19. Hill AM, Coates AM, Buckley JD, Ross R, Thielecke F, Howe PR. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26:396S-402S.
    20. Jovanovic SV, Simic MG. Antioxidants in nutrition. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci 2000;899:326-34.
    21. Ahmed S, Rahman A, Hasnain A, Lalonde M, Goldberg VM, Haqqi TM. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the IL-1 beta-induced activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in human chondrocytes. Free Radic.Biol Med 2002;33:1097-105.
    22. Chen A, Zhang L, Xu J, Tang J. The antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits activated hepatic stellate cell growth and suppresses acetaldehyde-induced gene expression. Biochem J 2002;368:695-704.
    23. Cai YJ, Ma LP, Hou LF, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL. Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Chem Phys.Lipids 2002;120:109-17.
  • Gum arabic

    Gum arabic, also known as gum acacia, is the gum that exudes from the acacia tree, Acacia senegal or Acacia seyal. Gum arabic is a water-soluble dietary fiber used primarily to control the consistency of food and beverages. Monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, glucuronic acid and rhamnose 1. Gum arabic is included in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 2. It is also an approved food additive by the U.S. FDA 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Whistler RL, BeMiller JN. Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists. St. Paul, Minn.: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 1999.
    2. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm . 2007.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html . 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Gum tragacanth

    Gum tragacanth comes from the stems and branches of the flowering plant Astragalus gummifer. The raw gum is made up of a mixture of two polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid 1. Gum tragacanth has been approved for use in pharmaceuticals in the U.S. since 1820 and in foods since 1925 2. Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon 3. Test tube studies have demonstrated that gum tragacanth can be digested by a number of bacteria that inhabit the human colon, including the beneficial Bifidobacteria species 4,5. Gum tragacanth is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is commonly added to foods (21CFR184.1351).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Anderson DM, Howlett JF, McNab CG. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.). Food Addit Contam 1985;2:231-5.
    2. Anderson DM. Evidence for the safety of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.) and modern criteria for the evaluation of food additives. Food Addit Contam 1989;6:1-12.
    3. Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.
    4. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
    5. Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.
  • Kale (leaf)

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. It is an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K and manganese, as well as a source of dietary fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin B6, calcium, potassium and copper 1. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant activities.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Kale has a moderate to high glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
  • Onion (bulb)

    Onion. The underground bulb of the onion plant, Allium cepa, is the sixth leading vegetable crop in the world. It is thought that onion consumption dates as far back as prehistoric man 1. Onions are a source of vitamin C, vitamin B6, manganese, thiamin, folate, phosphorus and potassium 2. Many of the health benefits of onions are attributed to its sulfur-containing compounds, which are also responsible for the onion’s distinctive odor and its ability to bring tears to the eyes when cut. Onions are also a source of antioxidant flavonoids, such as quercetin 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Papaya (fruit)

    Papaya is the fruit of the papaya tree, Carica papaya, native to tropical Central America 1. Papayas are an excellent source of vitamins A and C, and a source of dietary fiber, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate and potassium 2. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant activities.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Pineapple juice powder (fruit)

    Pineapple juice powder. Pineapple juice is extracted from the fresh fruit pineapple, Ananas comosus. The pineapple is native to South America and is now cultivated in tropical environments all over the world 1. Fresh pineapple is a source of bromelain, an enzyme that digests protein 2. It is also an excellent source of vitamin C and manganese, and a source of dietary fiber, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, magnesium, potassium and copper 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Quercetin dihydrate

    Quercetin dihydrate. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid that, like other flavonoids, demonstrates antioxidant activity. It is found in many plant foods – such as onions, grapefruit, broccoli and apples – as well as in plant-derived beverages like tea and red wine. Berries are also believed to be a good source of bioavailable quercetin (black currants, lingonberries and bilberries). Quercetin is sometimes used as an ingredient in multivitamin preparations and herbal remedies. The amount of quercetin absorbed through the intestine varies depending on its source. Quercetin is generally safe and well tolerated when consumed in amounts naturally found in foods 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
  • Tomato (fruit)

    Tomato is the fruit of the plant, Lycopersicon esculentum, and a member of the Nightshade family, Solanceae. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from cherry tomatoes, 1–2 cm in diameter, to beefsteak tomatoes, 10 cm or more in diameter. Tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin A and well-known for their lycopene content, an important antioxidant nutrient 1. Ripe (red) tomatoes contain 3 to 4 times as much vitamin A as mature green tomatoes 2. Tomatoes are also a good source of vitamin K and a source of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate and manganese 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
  • Turnip (root)

    Turnip is a root vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Turnips are a good source of vitamin C and a source of dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, potassium, copper and manganese 1.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Turnips have a moderate glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    3. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)

    Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin found mainly in fruits and vegetables, particularly in citrus fruits such as oranges. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and thereby demonstrates potent antioxidant activity. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to the disease scurvy, which involves the deterioration of elastic tissue, demonstrating the important role of ascorbic acid in the synthesis of connective tissues such as collagen in bones 1. Dietary vitamin C is efficiently absorbed through the intestine.
      Vitamin C is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.8013). The U.S. FDA has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 60 mgs vitamin C for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Vitamin E (as mixed d-alpha-, d-beta-, d-delta-, and d-gamma-tocopherols)

    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. In foods, vitamin E exists primarily as mixed tocopherols. Foods that contain vitamin E include: eggs, fortified cereals, fruit, green leafy vegetables, meat, nuts/nut oils, poultry, vegetable oils and whole grains. Vitamin E supplements are available in natural or synthetic forms. While the precise rate of vitamin E absorption is not known with certainty, it is believed to be variable and low. Reported rates of absorption of vitamin E following intake with food have varied from as high as 51%-86% to as low as 21%-29% 1. All forms of vitamin E, including all of the tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues, are absorbed through the intestine in a similar manner.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 30 international units (IUs) vitamin E for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Tocopherols, along with tocotrienols, are organic compounds collectively known as vitamin E. Natural tocopherols exist as a mixture of d-alpha-, d-beta-, d-gamma- and d-delta-isoforms, each having antioxidant activities 2. Tocopherols are present in many foods, such as vegetable oils, nuts and grains. They are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods (21CFR182.3890) 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

Formulation

  • Citric acid

    Citric acid occurs naturally in a number of plant species, including lemons and pineapples. It is also found naturally in the human body, mainly in the bones. In food products, citric acid is used as a flavor enhancer for its tart, acidic taste. As an excipient, it is used primarily to adjust the pH (the acidity or alkalinity) of a product 1. It is also used in skin care products for fragrance 2. Citric acid is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 3. It is also included in the U.S. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
    4. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm. 2007.
  • Vegetable cellulose

    Vegetable cellulose. Cellulose is a natural compound found in the cell walls of many plants. Powdered cellulose is added to tablets and capsules for a variety of reasons: to dilute the ingredients in tablets or capsules or to help tablets disintegrate following ingestion. Powdered cellulose is not absorbed systemically following oral ingestion and thus has little potential for toxicity. While consumption of large amounts (i.e., 6 g) may have a laxative effect, this is not a concern for individuals consuming the small amounts used as formulation aids in dietary supplements 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.
  • Xanthan gum

    Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide produced from the fermentation of plant carbohydrates by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose and mannose 1. It is commonly added to foods, where it serves as a stabilizing agent and a thickener 2. Xanthan gum is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive (21CFR172.695) 3.  Xanthan gum is also used as a skin conditioning agent, to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures and to thicken the texture of cosmetics and personal care products 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    2. Whistler RL, BeMiller JN. Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists. St. Paul, Minn.: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 1999.

Product Claims

Products

Ambrotose AO® Capsules

Product Numbers

12701: 60 Ambrotose AO Capsules

Country

South Africa

Effective

September 2016

Supersedes

February 2011
  • Quality and Safetty
    • NSF-certified
    • Naturally gluten-free
    • Gluten-free
    • Suitable for vegetarians
    • Suitable for vegans
    • Contains naturally sourced ingredients
    • Free from dairy
    • Free from preservatives
    • Kosher
    • Patented formulation
  • Benefits

    2-4/Day Ambrotose AO Capsules


    • Proprietary formula
    • Rich in antioxidant vitamins C and E
    • Excellent source of vitamins C and E
    • Ambrotose AO is [an, one of the most] effective supplement containing sensible [reasonable, intelligent, sound, judicious, prudent] amounts of antioxidant nutrients on the market today*
    • Ambrotose AO supplementation has consistently exerted positive effects on serum antioxidant capacity in three independent clinical studies*
    • Ambrotose AO is an excellent antioxidant supplement for those who can’t fit those servings of fruit and vegetables into their day*
    • The increase in serum ORAC following intake of Ambrotose AO has been consistently greater than the increase (13%) found in a separate study following the addition of five servings of fruits and vegetables to the diet
    • Ambrotose AO provides a blend of antioxidant ingredients for maximum benefit*
    • Ambrotose AO includes a blend of water-soluble and fat-soluble antioxidants
    • Ambrotose AO had been shown in repeated clinical studies to increase serum ORAC levels*
    • Ambrotose AO [has been/is] the only supplement shown to increase serum ORAC levels in both smokers and non-smokers*
    • Ambrotose AO significantly increased serum ORAC 30 minutes post-acute exercise in healthy adults*
    • Ambrotose AO supplementation has consistently shown effects on serum antioxidant capacity in several independent clinical studies. Two to 4 capsules a day have been shown to increase serum ORAC values an average of 32%, with a mean range of 22–37%*
    • Two to 4 capsules a day of Ambrotose AO have been shown to increase serum ORAC values from 22–37%*
    • Two to 4 capsules a day of Ambrotose AO have been shown to increase serum ORAC values by an average of 32%*
    • Ambrotose AO increased serum ORAC levels by 22 to 37.4% in three human clinical studies performed by independent research laboratories*
    • Ambrotose AO is the only dietary supplement shown to increase serum ORAC (up to 37.4%) in three human clinical studies performed by independent research laboratories*
    • Ambrotose AO has been shown in a published clinical study to significantly increase serum antioxidant capacity using two different methods of measurement: ORAC and TEAC*
    • No other dietary supplement has been shown in a published clinical study to significantly increase both serum ORAC and serum TEAC – two different measures of serum antioxidant capacity*
    • Ambrotose AO increased the serum antioxidant measure TEAC by 19% following intake of 4 capsules/day*
    • Ambrotose AO is the only dietary supplement shown to increase the serum antioxidant measure TEAC* Four capsules/day AO increased serum TEAC by 19%*
    • For people interested in a safe supplement that has consistently increased serum ORAC in clinical studies, Ambrotose AO [is a good/may be the best] choice*
    • A clinical study showed an increase in serum ORAC following the addition of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables to the daily diet. Supplementation with Ambrotose AO has also consistently increased ORAC in clinical studies.*
    • Ambrotose AO includes a blend of antioxidant nutrients: fruit and vegetable powders, as well as a blend of other antioxidant ingredients (quercetin, grape skin extract, green tea powder, ascorbic acid and mixed tocopherols)
    • Ambrotose AO, a blend of fruit and vegetable powders with sensible amounts of vitamins C and E along with quercetin and polyphenols, [is a good/may be the best] choice for daily antioxidant supplementation*
    • Ambrotose AO contains mixed tocopherols, rather than just alpha-tocopherol, because preliminary studies suggest the mixture is superior in providing health benefits, such as inhibiting platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation*
    • Ambrotose AO includes vitamin C for immune system support*
    • Ambrotose AO includes vitamin E, which may support immunity in the elderly*
    • Ambrotose AO is antioxidant-rich to help the body cope with the harmful effects of oxidative stress*
    • Ambrotose AO helps counter the harmful effects of toxins, environmental stress, poor diet and daily physical and oxidative stress – all of which can damage cells, tissues and DNA*
    • Ambrotose AO is antioxidant-rich to help combat oxidative stress*
    • A blend of antioxidants with synergistic effects*
    • Ambrotose AO is formulated to provide strong radical scavenging effects that support cellular health*
    • Ambrotose AO [provides/supports] antioxidant protection*
    • Ambrotose AO supports antioxidant protection*
    • Ambrotose AO supports oxidative stress management*
    • Ambrotose AO increases blood serum ORAC values*
    • Ambrotose AO increases antioxidant activity in the blood*
    • Ambrotose AO delivers antioxidant activity that may help to scavenge free radicals; free radicals are highly reactive substances which may be generated in the body by lifestyle factors such as smoking, stress and an unhealthy diet*
    • Ambrotose AO protects against free radicals*
    • Ambrotose AO helps protect lipids from damage due to free radicals*
    • Ambrotose AO provides nutritional support for general wellbeing*
  • About Competitor Antioxidant Products

    2-4/Day Ambrotose AO Capsules


    • Questions have arisen regarding the use of high-dose antioxidant supplements. Ambrotose AO provides sensible quantities of a blend of antioxidant ingredients, for a natural approach
    • The safety of supplemental beta-carotene (≥20 mg/day), a vitamin A precursor, and/or high doses of vitamin E (≥400 IU/day; ≥1333% DV), has been questioned
    • The effects of high-dose ascorbic acid on serum ORAC have been inconsistent. In one study, high dose ascorbic acid (500 mg; 833% DV vitamin C) was shown to increase serum ORAC 2.5%; in another study, 1250 mg ascorbic acid (2000% DV vitamin C) had no effect on serum ORAC
    • Supplements including high-dose (250-400 mg/day; 416-666% DV vitamin C) ascorbic acid supplementation have been ineffective at increasing serum ORAC
    • High-dose ascorbic acid (500 mg/day; 833% DV vitamin C) may exert pro-oxidant effects
    • Multivitamins with high doses of ascorbic acid (550-666% DV vitamin C), vitamin E (2166-2750% DV) and other antioxidant nutrients have not significantly increased serum ORAC
    • In one study, high-dose alpha-tocopherol (400 IU; 1333% DV vitamin E) increased serum ORAC 10%
    • High doses of alpha-tocopherol (≥ 400% DV vitamin E) may have negative effects on health
    • High-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (4 g fish oil/day) has been ineffective at increasing serum ORAC
    • High-dose beta-carotene supplements (20-30 mg/day) have been shown to exert negative health effects in smokers and individuals who drink alcohol
  • More About Antioxidants
    • An antioxidant is defined as any substance that can inhibit oxidation and may protect the body from the effects of free radicals
    • Supplements providing mixtures of sensibly-dosed antioxidant nutrients appear to be most effective at exerting antioxidant effects
    • Compared with the other vitamin E isomers, alpha-tocopherol has the greatest overall vitamin E activity per unit weight than other tocopherol isomers
    • Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) is a widely accepted standard method for assessing the impact of dietary factors on blood antioxidant status developed by scientists affiliated with the United States Department of Agriculture
    • Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) is another accepted method for assessing the antioxidant status of blood
    • There are several different means for measuring antioxidant potential. Ambrotose AO has demonstrated the ability to increase serum antioxidant potential using two different assays: the ORAC and TEAC assays. The ORAC assay uses a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction mechanism, which is most relevant to human biology. The TEAC assay is an electron transfer (ET) based assay that measures reducing capacity
    • Most supplements have only been tested in test-tube (in vitro) studies, which do not necessarily predict the ability of the supplementation to increase serum ORAC levels
    • Human responses to antioxidant supplementation are variable, and may be shaped by an individual’s age, gender, whether or not they smoke, or if they drink alcohol
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