Product Details

Naturally gluten-free.

Vitamin/mineral supplement formulated to support fat loss and help maintain good health.*

Array
(
    [dietary] => Array
        (
            [0] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1383
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Acerola extract (fruit)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => acerola-extract-fruit
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/acerola-extract-fruit/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [1] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1108
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Aloe vera (inner leaf gel powder)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => aloe-vera-inner-leaf-gel-powder
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-08-20 19:15:13
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-08-20 19:15:13
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/aloe-vera-inner-leaf-gel-powder/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [2] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1384
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Alpha-lipoic acid
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => alpha-lipoic-acid
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/alpha-lipoic-acid/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [3] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1111
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Arabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => arabinogalactan-from-larix-spp-wood
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-11-18 19:36:13
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-11-18 19:36:13
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/arabinogalactan-from-larix-spp-wood/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [4] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1125
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Biotin
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => biotin
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-11-09 17:06:15
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-11-09 17:06:15
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/biotin/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [5] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1446
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Boron (as boron glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => boron-as-boron-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/boron-as-boron-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [6] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1450
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => calcium-as-calcium-carbonate-calcium-citrate-malate-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/calcium-as-calcium-carbonate-calcium-citrate-malate-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [7] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1427
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Choline bitartrate
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => choline-bitartrate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-01-15 20:45:21
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-01-15 20:45:21
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/choline-bitartrate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [8] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1452
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Chromium (as chromium dinicotinate glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => chromium-as-chromium-dinicotinate-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/chromium-as-chromium-dinicotinate-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [9] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1388
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Coenzyme Q10
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => coenzyme-q10
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/coenzyme-q10/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [10] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1455
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Copper (as copper glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => copper-as-copper-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/copper-as-copper-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [11] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 3570
                    [post_author] => 3
                    [post_date] => 2016-02-16 20:36:38
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-02-16 20:36:38
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Folic acid
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => folic-acid
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-02-17 17:10:21
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-17 17:10:21
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/?post_type=ingredient&p=3570
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [12] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1172
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Ghatti gum
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => ghatti-gum
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-11-09 17:50:13
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-11-09 17:50:13
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/ghatti-gum/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [13] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1286
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Ginger (root)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => ginger-root
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/ginger-root/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [14] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1393
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Green pea fiber
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => green-pea-fiber
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/green-pea-fiber/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [15] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1188
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Gum tragacanth
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => gum-tragacanth
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/gum-tragacanth/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [16] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1298
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Inositol
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => inositol
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/inositol/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [17] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1461
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Iodine (as potassium iodide)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => iodine-as-potassium-iodide
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/iodine-as-potassium-iodide/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [18] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1196
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Iron
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => iron
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/iron/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [19] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1465
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Magnesium (as magnesium oxide, magnesium glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => magnesium-as-magnesium-oxide-magnesium-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/magnesium-as-magnesium-oxide-magnesium-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [20] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1468
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Manganese (as manganese glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => manganese-as-manganese-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/manganese-as-manganese-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [21] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1470
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Molybdenum (as molybdenum glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => molybdenum-as-molybdenum-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/molybdenum-as-molybdenum-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [22] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1472
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Niacin (as niacinamide)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => niacin-as-niacinamide
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/niacin-as-niacinamide/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [23] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1394
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Orange (peel)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => orange-peel
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/orange-peel/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [24] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1474
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Pantothenic acid (as calcium D-pantothenate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => pantothenic-acid-as-calcium-d-pantothenate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/pantothenic-acid-as-calcium-d-pantothenate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [25] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1235
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Riboflavin
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => riboflavin
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/riboflavin/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [26] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1343
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Rice bran
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => rice-bran
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/rice-bran/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [27] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1396
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Rose hips
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => rose-hips
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/rose-hips/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [28] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1480
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Selenium (as selenomethionine)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => selenium-as-selenomethionine
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/selenium-as-selenomethionine/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [29] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1241
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Sodium
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => sodium
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/sodium/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [30] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1249
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Soy protein isolate
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => soy-protein-isolate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-29 21:25:11
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-29 21:25:11
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/soy-protein-isolate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [31] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1397
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Spinach (leaf)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => spinach-leaf
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/spinach-leaf/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [32] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1398
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Spirulina algae
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => spirulina-algae
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/spirulina-algae/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [33] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1482
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Thiamin (as thiamin mononitrate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => thiamin-as-thiamin-mononitrate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/thiamin-as-thiamin-mononitrate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [34] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1486
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vanadium (as vanadyl glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vanadium-as-vanadyl-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vanadium-as-vanadyl-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [35] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1488
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin A (as Dunaliella salina isolate [alpha-, beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein])
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-a-as-dunaliella-salina-isolate-alpha-beta-carotene-cryptoxanthin-zeaxanthin-lutein
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-a-as-dunaliella-salina-isolate-alpha-beta-carotene-cryptoxanthin-zeaxanthin-lutein/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [36] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1493
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-b12-as-cyanocobalamin
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-01-19 21:32:06
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-01-19 21:32:06
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-b12-as-cyanocobalamin/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [37] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1491
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine hydrochloride, pyridoxine 5-phosphate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-b6-as-pyridoxine-hydrochloride-pyridoxine-5-phosphate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-b6-as-pyridoxine-hydrochloride-pyridoxine-5-phosphate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [38] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1350
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-c-as-ascorbic-acid
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-c-as-ascorbic-acid/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [39] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1497
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-d-as-cholecalciferol
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-04-11 20:29:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-11 20:29:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-d-as-cholecalciferol/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [40] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1503
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin E (as d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate, mixed d-alpha-, d-beta-, d-delta-, d-gamma-tocopherols, and tocotrienols)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-e-as-d-alpha-tocopheryl-succinate-mixed-d-alpha-d-beta-d-delta-d-gamma-tocopherols-and-tocotrienols
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-e-as-d-alpha-tocopheryl-succinate-mixed-d-alpha-d-beta-d-delta-d-gamma-tocopherols-and-tocotrienols/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [41] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1399
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Watercress (leaf)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => watercress-leaf
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/watercress-leaf/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [42] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1510
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Zinc (as zinc glycinate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => zinc-as-zinc-glycinate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/zinc-as-zinc-glycinate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

        )

    [formulation] => Array
        (
            [0] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1156
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Croscarmellose sodium
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => croscarmellose-sodium
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/croscarmellose-sodium/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [1] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1204
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Magnesium stearate
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => magnesium-stearate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/magnesium-stearate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [2] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1208
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Microcrystalline cellulose
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => microcrystalline-cellulose
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-04-11 18:37:01
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-11 18:37:01
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/microcrystalline-cellulose/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [3] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1400
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Pharmaceutical glaze
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => pharmaceutical-glaze
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:03
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/pharmaceutical-glaze/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [4] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1239
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Silicon dioxide
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => silicon-dioxide
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-29 21:24:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-29 21:24:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/silicon-dioxide/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [5] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1254
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Stearic acid
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => stearic-acid
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-04-11 18:41:45
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-11 18:41:45
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/stearic-acid/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

        )

)

Ingredients

Functional

  • Acerola extract (fruit)

    Acerola extract is obtained from the fruit of the small tree, Malpighia glabra or Malpighia punicifolia. Acerola is grown in tropical regions of the Americas. The fruit is known for being one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C and also contains vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and polyphenols, such as anthocyanins. Acerola fruit extract acts as an antioxidant, likely due to the presence of some of these nutrients 1. Most acerola fruit is processed into fruit products, such as jams, jellies and juices, or added to dietary supplements as a source of vitamin C 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Aloe vera (inner leaf gel powder)

    Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder  is the powder obtained from the freeze-dried gel from the leaves of the aloe vera plant, Aloe barbadensis.

    For centuries, the plant aloe vera has been used by cultures for its beneficial effects on human health 1. Today aloe vera gel continues to be used in supplements, foods, beverages, and cosmetics. Aloe leaves consist of two major parts, the outer leaf epidermis and the inner leaf gel, which are very different in their chemical composition and properties. Aloe gel is obtained from the inner portion of the leaves. Aloe gel is rich in nutrients and contains an abundant supply of glycoproteins and mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, galactose, arabinose, fucose, glucosamine, fructose, rhamnose and xylose 2.

    Much of the health benefits observed by the use of aloe vera gel may be attributed to its high molecular weight polysaccharides. Before a process was developed to stabilize aloe vera gel or extracts, fresh preparations were regarded as being required for any therapeutic efficacy 3. It has now been shown that careful drying of aloe vera gel can retain the polysaccharide content important for producing many of its health benefits 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 1996.
    2. Duncan, C., Ramberg, J., and Sinnott, R. Striking differences in Aloe vera gel carbohydrate composition, molecular weight and particle size distributions following processing will not be addressed by dietary supplement GMPs. Poster Presentation at the 5th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 17-20, 2008, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.
    3. Gjerstad G, Riner TD. Current status of aloe as a cure-all. Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health 1968;140:58-64.
    4. Ni Y, Turner D, Yates KM, Tizard I. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:1745-55.
  • Alpha-lipoic acid

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is an organic compound made naturally in the body. It functions as a coenzyme in chemical reactions that generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It also demonstrates antioxidant activity. Food sources of ALA include red meat, spinach, broccoli and yeast 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Arabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood)

    Arabinogalactans are a class of long, densely branched high-molecular weight polysaccharides extracted for commercial uses from the bark of the Eastern and Western Larch trees, Larix larcinia and Larix occidentalis. Their monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, glucose and mannose 1. Larch arabinogalactans are considered a good source of prebiotic soluble dietary fiber 2,3. Small amounts of arabinogalactans can be found in some food plants, including corn, carrots, tomatoes, pears, wheat and red wine 4.

    A human double-blind, placebo-controlled trial indicates that intake of 1.5 grams of a larch arabinogalactan can enhance the antigenic response to a bacterial (tetanus) and viral (flu) challenges in healthy subjects 5. Both Ambrotose powders provide > 1.5 grams of this larch arabinogalactan/day.  Two human double-blind, placebo-controlled trials indicated that higher doses of  this arabinogalactan (4.5 grams) can enhance the response to a bacterial (pneumococcal) challenge 6,7.

    Larch arabinogalactans are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR172.610).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine's 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, San Diego, California.January 22-25, 2009. 2009.
    2. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
    3. Kelly GS. 'Larch arabinogalactan: clinical relevance of a novel immune-enhancing polysaccharide. Altern.Med Rev 1999;4:96-103.
    4. Cui SW. Polysaccharide Gums from Agricultural Products: Processing, Structures & Functionality. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 2001.
    5. Udani JK. Immunomodulatory effects of ResistAid: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multidose study. J Am Coll Nutr 2013;32:331-8.
    6. Udani JK, Singh BB, Barrett ML, Singh VJ. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers. Nutr J 2010;9:1-7.
    7. Riede L, Grube B, Gruenwald J. Larch arabinogalactan effects on reducing incidence of upper respiratory infections. Curr Med Res Opin 2013;29:251-8.
  • Biotin

    Biotin is a water-soluble B complex vitamin required for many reactions involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins 1. Biotin is found in many foods such as liver, egg yolk, green vegetables and whole grains.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 300 μg biotin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Boron (as boron glycinate)

    Boron is a trace mineral naturally occurring in many foods, but it is particularly abundant in peanut butter, wine, raisins and nuts. The U.S. FDA has not established a DV for boron, but growing evidence suggests it is essential to human beings. In the U.S., adult men consume a mean of 1.17 mg/day and women consume 0.96 mg/day. Vegetarian adults consume slightly more 1.
      Up to 18 mg/day of boron appears to be safe for adults even if taken for long periods of time. There is no evidence that it is either carcinogenic or mutagenic. No adverse effects have been observed in women taking boron supplements 2.
      Boron glycinate, or boron glycine chelate, is a form of chelated boron, in which a boron ion is bound to the amino acid glycine. It is used as a source of the trace mineral boron in dietary supplements.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Rainey CJ, Nyquist LA, Christensen RE, Strong PL, Culver BD, Coughlin JR. Daily boron intake from the American diet. J Am Diet.Assoc. 1999;99:335-40.
    2. PDR Health Database. www.pdrhealth.com. 2007.
  • Calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate glycinate)

    Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Over 99% of total body calcium is found in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is found throughout the body in blood, muscle and the intracellular fluid. Calcium is used for muscle contraction, blood vessel constriction and relaxation, the secretion of hormones and enzymes, and nervous system signaling. A constant level of calcium is needed to be maintained in the body in order for these processes to function properly. The body gets the calcium it needs through food and by being extracted from bones. Calcium-rich foods include dairy products and dark, leafy greens. For dietary calcium, vitamin D is important and recommended for optimal calcium absorption through the intestine. Calcium extraction from bones occurs when dietary calcium is insufficient and can lead to weakened bone structure 1.
      Many individuals in the U.S. consume inadequate amounts of calcium. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1,000 mg calcium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Calcium carbonate is an organic compound used as a source of the essential mineral calcium in dietary supplements. It is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2.
      Calcium citrate/malate/glycinate is a mixture of calcium salts and chelates that are commonly used as sources of the essential mineral calcium in dietary supplements.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Choline bitartrate

    Choline is a nutrient related to the water-soluble B-complex vitamins that is necessary for the structure and function of all cells. It is important for the structural integrity of cell membranes and proper functioning of the brain, as well as required for a number of metabolic reactions that take place in the body. Humans can synthesize choline themselves, or they can consume choline through the diet. It can be found in high amounts in foods such as egg yolk, peanuts, fish, milk and a variety of meats and vegetables. Dietary choline is absorbed from the small intestine and travels through the bloodstream to all organs and tissues of the body. No adverse effects have been seen with choline intakes at the amounts present in our products 1.
    Choline bitartrate is a salt of the nutrient choline. It is commonly used as a source of choline in dietary supplements 2. Choline bitartrate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for human consumption by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.8250) 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Chromium (as chromium dinicotinate glycinate)

    Chromium is an essential trace element that plays an important role in normal blood sugar regulation. Sources of dietary chromium include high-bran cereals, meats, poultry, fish and some beers and red wines. Only small amounts (<2.5%) of dietary chromium are absorbed through the intestine 1.
      No adverse effects have been associated with chromium intake from food or supplements 1. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 120 μg chromium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Chromium dinicotinate glycinate is a form of chelated chromium, in which a trivalent chromium ion (Cr3+) is bound to nicotinic acid (niacin) and the amino acid glycine. Chromium chelates are often used as a source of chromium in dietary supplements 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Coenzyme Q10

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), also known as ubiquinone, is a vitamin-like compound found naturally in most cells of the body, with the highest concentrations found in the heart, liver, kidneys and pancreas. It functions as a cofactor in chemical reactions that generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). CoQ10 also demonstrates antioxidant activity. Food sources of CoQ10 include animal organ meats, such as liver and kidney. CoQ10 can also be made in the body through a process that requires B vitamins and vitamin C, along with other nutrients. CoQ10 is commonly used as a dietary supplement by healthy individuals 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
  • Copper (as copper glycinate)

    Copper is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and is present in small amounts in drinking water. Contributors of dietary copper include organ meats, seafood, nuts, wheat bran cereals and whole grain products. Copper is a component of multiple enzymes and is involved in numerous biochemical reactions in human cells, such as the reduction of molecular oxygen, the regulation of gene expression, mitochondrial function/cellular metabolism and the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg copper for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      The risk of adverse effects resulting from excess intake of copper from food, water and supplements appears to be very low in adults, but may be more likely in young children. Excess copper intake can lead to gastrointestinal disturbances and possible liver damage 1.
      Copper glycinate is a form of chelated copper, in which a divalent copper ion (Cu2+) is bound to the amino acid glycine. It is used as a source of the trace mineral copper in dietary supplements.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Folic acid

    Folic acid, a water-soluble B-complex vitamin included in supplements and fortified foods, is used in the human body for synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids. Natural food sources of folate include dark green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits and juices, legumes and liver.

    Folic acid is well-tolerated in amounts found in fortified foods and dietary supplements. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 μg folate for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Ghatti gum

    Ghatti gum, a mixture of complex polysaccharides, comes from the bark of Anogeissus latifolia, a large tree native to India and Sri Lanka. Monosaccharide constituents include arabinose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucuronic acid. Ghatti gum is used in supplements, foods, drugs and cosmetics. It contains as much as 80% soluble dietary fiber 1.

    Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon 2. Test tube studies have demonstrated the fermentation of ghatti gum by the beneficial human bacteria species Bifidobacterium 3,4. Ghatti gum is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is permitted for use as a food (21CFR184.1333).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Glicksman M. Gum Ghatti (Indian gum). In: Glicksman M, ed. Food Hydrocolloids. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1983:31-7.
    2. Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.
    3. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
    4. Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.
  • Ginger (root)

    Ginger, Zingiber officinale, is an herb grown in a number of Asian, African and Caribbean countries. The roots and underground stems have long been used in traditional Chinese, Indian and Japanese cultures. Ginger is widely used as a food spice, especially in Oriental cooking. Dried powdered root is also used in herbal teas and supplements 1. Ginger is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a spice or natural seasoning (21CFR182.10).

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Leung A, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1996.
  • Green pea fiber

    Green pea fiber. Peas, the small spherical seeds or seed-pods of the legume Pisum sativum, have been consumed as food for thousands of years, beginning with Chinese cultures as far back as 2000 B.C. 1. Green peas are an excellent source of dietary fiber 2. Green pea fiber is obtained by grinding the pea hulls, or pods.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
  • Gum tragacanth

    Gum tragacanth comes from the stems and branches of the flowering plant Astragalus gummifer. The raw gum is made up of a mixture of two polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid 1. Gum tragacanth has been approved for use in pharmaceuticals in the U.S. since 1820 and in foods since 1925 2. Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon 3. Test tube studies have demonstrated that gum tragacanth can be digested by a number of bacteria that inhabit the human colon, including the beneficial Bifidobacteria species 4,5. Gum tragacanth is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is commonly added to foods (21CFR184.1351).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Anderson DM, Howlett JF, McNab CG. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.). Food Addit Contam 1985;2:231-5.
    2. Anderson DM. Evidence for the safety of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.) and modern criteria for the evaluation of food additives. Food Addit Contam 1989;6:1-12.
    3. Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.
    4. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
    5. Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.
  • Inositol

    Inositol is an organic compound closely related to glucose. Inositol can be found in foods such as bran, nuts, beans and fruit 1. Human breast milk is also a rich source of inositol. Inositol can be synthesized in the body to become essential components of cell membrane phospholipids 2. It is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Iodine (as potassium iodide)

    Iodine is an essential element required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, normal functioning of the thyroid gland, a gland actively involved in the regulation of metabolism, requires iodine. Humans obtain iodine from their diets. Iodine deficiency is rare in industrialized countries such as the United States due to the enrichment of table salt with iodine. Under normal conditions, the absorption of dietary iodine is greater than 90 percent 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 150 μg iodine for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Potassium iodide is an inorganic salt that occurs naturally in sea water and salt deposits. It is used in dietary supplements as a source of iodine. Potassium iodide is considered generally recognized as safe for use as a nutrient supplement in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1634) 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Iron

    Iron is an essential mineral that primarily functions in the movement of oxygen from the environment to the tissues. There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Sources of heme iron include meat, fish and poultry. Sources of non-heme iron include beans, lentils, flours, cereals and grains. Iron levels are tightly regulated in the human body, mainly by controlling the amount of iron absorbed from food. The proportion of dietary iron absorbed is determined by the iron requirement of the individual; more iron present in the body means less iron is absorbed through the intestine. Heme iron is more easily absorbed than non-heme iron 1.
    The risk of adverse effects from food sources of iron is low. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 18 mg iron for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Magnesium (as magnesium oxide, magnesium glycinate)

    Magnesium is an essential mineral nutrient for human life. Magnesium ions are essential to all living cells, but nearly 50% is found within the bones where they play a major role in bone and mineral homeostasis. Magnesium is also important for many cellular reactions such as energy generation, cell membrane stabilization and protein activation. Food sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, nuts, meat, starches and milk. Intestinal absorption of dietary magnesium in a typical diet is approximately 50 percent 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 mg magnesium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Magnesium, when ingested as a naturally occurring substance in foods, has not been demonstrated to exert any adverse effects. However, adverse effects, such as mild gastrointestinal disturbances, have been observed with excess magnesium intake from nonfood sources 1.
      Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white mineral powder used as a source of magnesium in dietary supplements. It is also used as an excipient in oral formulations to bind excess water and to modify the pH (acidity or alkalinity) 2. Magnesium oxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1431) 3.
      Magnesium glycinate is a form of chelated magnesium, in which the magnesium ion is bound to the amino acid glycine. Magnesium glycinate is more easily absorbed through the intestines into the blood stream than other sources of magnesium (e.g. magnesium oxide) 4. Due its enhanced bioavailability, magnesium glycinate is gaining popularity for use as a magnesium source in dietary supplements.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.
    2. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
    4. Schuette SA, Lashner BA, Janghorbani M. Bioavailability of magnesium diglycinate vs magnesium oxide in patients with ileal resection. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 1994;18:430-5.
  • Manganese (as manganese glycinate)

    Manganese is an essential nutrient that activates a number of enzymes involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Dietary manganese can be found in grain products, vegetables and beverages such as tea. Only a small percentage of dietary manganese is absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg manganese for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Manganese glycinate is a form of chelated manganese, in which a manganese ion is bound to the amino acid glycine. It is used as a source of the essential mineral manganese in dietary supplements.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Molybdenum (as molybdenum glycinate)

    Molybdenum is an essential trace element that functions as a cofactor for a number of enzymes in the body, some of which are involved in the metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides. The molybdenum content of plant foods varies depending upon the soil content in which they are grown. Legumes, grain products and nuts are major contributors of molybdenum to the diet. Dietary molybdenum is efficiently absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 75 μg molybdenum for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Molybdenum glycinate is a form of chelated molybdenum, in which a molybdenum ion is bound to the amino acid glycine. It is used as a source of the essential mineral molybdenum in dietary supplements.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Niacin (as niacinamide)

    Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinamide. Niacin is a precursor to the most central electron carrier substances in living cells, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), thus functioning in many metabolic pathways 1. Foods that contain niacin include beans, liver, fish, poultry and cereal grains.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 20 mg niacin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is a form of the B-complex vitamin niacin. It is the principal form of niacin used in dietary supplements and fortified foods 2. Niacinamide is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Orange (peel)

    Orange (peel). The peels of both the sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, and the bitter orange, Citrus aurantium, are commonly used in dietary supplements. The sweet orange peel is a source of vitamin C and contains carotenoids, pectin and numerous bioflavonoids, such as hesperidin. The bitter orange peel contains many of the same flavonoid compounds 1. Both contain nutrients that demonstrate antioxidant activities. Orange peel and extracts made from both the sweet and bitter orange peels are approved for use as food additives by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Leung A, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1996.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Pantothenic acid (as calcium D-pantothenate)

    Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, is an essential B complex vitamin that is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), a molecule that is involved in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrates and proteins 1. Rich food sources of pantothenic acid include chicken, beef, potatoes, oat cereals, tomato products, liver, kidney, egg yolk, broccoli and whole grains. In commercial supplement products, pantothenic acid is available as calcium or sodium D-pantothenate or as pantothenol. Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 10 mg pantothenic acid for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Calcium D-pantothenate, or D-calcium pantothenate, is the principal supplemental form of the water-soluble vitamin pantothenic acid. It is often available in multivitamin and B-complex products 2. Calcium pantothenate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods (21CFR184.1212) 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Riboflavin

    Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B2, which is involved in numerous metabolic processes and energy production in the body 1.Good dietary sources of riboflavin are milk, eggs, enriched cereals/grains, meats, liver and green vegetables. Riboflavin is commonly found in multivitamin and vitamin B complex preparations.
    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.7 mg riboflavin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      The limited capacity of humans to absorb orally administered riboflavin limits its potential for harm. No adverse effects associated with riboflavin consumption from food or supplements have been reported 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Rice bran

    Rice bran is made from the bran layer, underneath the hull layer, of rice, Oryza sativa. Rice bran is high in dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and a number of minerals, such as iron and magnesium. It is also a good source of folate and riboflavin 1. Rice bran also contains beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols, along with the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
  • Rose hips

    Rose hips are the fruits from the blossoms of wild rose bushes. They have traditionally been used in cultures from a number of countries worldwide, including China, Japan, Turkey, Spain and the Americas. Rose hips are used to make foods and beverages like soup, tea, jam and juice. They are a rich source of vitamin C and are high in polyphenolic flavonoids, such as quercetin, and carotenoids, such as beta-carotene. All of these nutrients contribute to the fruits’ antioxidant activity 1. Rose hips extract is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.20) 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Selenium (as selenomethionine)

    Selenium is a trace mineral found in soil, water and some foods. The selenium content of food varies depending on the selenium content of the soil where the animal was raised or the plant was grown. Selenium is an essential element in several metabolic pathways and functions largely through its association with proteins, known as selenoproteins. Known biological functions of selenium include defense against oxidative stress and regulation of thyroid hormone action. Absorption of selenium is efficient with more than 90 percent of selenomethionine, the major dietary form of the element, being absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 70 μg selenium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Selenomethionine is an analogue of the amino acid methionine. The L-isomer is a common natural food source of selenium. There is evidence to suggest that selenomethionine is absorbed through the intestines and utilized by the body more easily than other forms of selenium found in foods and dietary supplements 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Shen L, van DK, Luten J, Deelstra H. Diffusibility of selenate, selenite, seleno-methionine, and seleno-cystine during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Biol Trace Elem Res 1997;58:55-63.
  • Sodium

    Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in humans. Sodium is necessary for regulating the water content of blood and other bodily fluids and is transported across cell membranes to regulate the transmission of nerve impulses and heart activity. Salt (sodium chloride) is the primary form of sodium in the diet. Other forms of sodium found in food include monosodium glutamate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite, sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate. The amount of dietary sodium that is absorbed through the intestine is approximately 98% 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Daily Reference Value (DRV) of 2,400 mg sodium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). DRVs are a set of dietary references for energy-producing nutrients, cholesterol, sodium and potassium that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. DRVs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      It is well-recognized that the current intake of sodium for most individuals in the United States exceeds recommended doses. The most common adverse effect seen with high sodium intake is an increase in blood pressure 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.
  • Soy protein isolate

    Soy protein isolate, produced from dehulled, defatted soybean flakes, contains 90%-95% protein and is the purest form of marketed soybean protein. Soy protein is an excellent source of essential amino acids, comparable to cow’s milk. Isolated soy protein is commonly added to meat, dairy and infant foods to enhance their protein content 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Spinach (leaf)

    Spinach. The leaves of the spinach plant, Spinacia oleracea, are a popular garden vegetable, widely cultivated throughout the world. While some spinach is consumed fresh, the majority is processed as canned or frozen 1. Fresh spinach is an excellent source of vitamins A and K, a good source of folate and a source of vitamin C and manganese 2. Spinach also contains flavonoid compounds, such as quercetin and myricetin, which demonstrate antioxidant activities 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    3. USDA Agricultural Research Service. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. USDA Department of Agriculture, 2003.
  • Spirulina algae

    Spirulina algae refers to a large number of blue-green algae species that have been harvested from warm lakes in Africa, Central and South America for thousands of years. Spirulina has been used since the 16th century as a source of food and nutrients. Today, it is a popular food supplement in Japan and is marketed as a dietary supplement in the U.S. Spirulina contains large amounts of dietary protein, B-complex vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin E and numerous minerals, such as calcium and iron. It also contains high molecular weight polysaccharides and the antioxidant phycocyanin, which may be responsible for a number of its beneficial effects on human health 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
  • Thiamin (as thiamin mononitrate)

    Thiamin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, also known as vitamin B1. It functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids 1. Dietary sources of thiamin include beef, pork, breads, seeds and whole grain cereals. Dietary thiamin is minimally absorbed through the intestine.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.5 mg thiamin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Thiamin mononitrate is a salt of the B-complex vitamin thiamin. It is one of the primary forms of thiamin typically used in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Thiamin mononitrate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a nutrient supplement in foods (21CFR184.1878) 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Vanadium (as vanadyl glycinate)

    Vanadium is a trace element found in foods such as mushrooms, shellfish, black pepper, parsley, grains and grain products. The absorption of ingested vanadium is less than 5 percent 1.
      A biological role of vanadium in humans is unclear. Therefore, neither a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) nor a Daily Reference Value (DRV) has been set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
      Vanadyl glycinate, or vanadium glycinate, is a form of chelated vanadium, in which a vanadium ion is bound to the amino acid glycine. It is used as a source of the trace mineral vanadium in dietary supplements.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Vitamin A (as Dunaliella salina isolate [alpha-, beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein])

    Vitamin A, also called retinol,is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for humans. Adequate intake is important for normal vision and immune function. Dietary vitamin A can be provided as both preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids that are precursors to vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A is abundant in animal-derived foods like liver, kidney, eggs, and dairy products. Carotenoids, like beta-carotene, are found in darkly colored fruits and vegetables. Preformed vitamin A is efficiently absorbed through the intestines, while carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact or cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. The proportion of beta-carotene converted to vitamin A decreases as beta-carotene intake increases, limiting the risk of vitamin A toxicity 1.
      Dietary preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids have vitamin A activity that can be expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) or international units (IU). In the U.S., 1 RAE is equal to 3.33 IU vitamin A. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 5,000 IUs vitamin A for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Dunaliella salina is a species of single-celled algae that grows in high salt waters. It is known for its antioxidant activity due to the fact that it contains a large amount of carotenoids. The presence of beta-carotene makes the algae appear red in color. Dunaliella salina can be used a source of carotenoids for dietary supplements 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Oren A. A hundred years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005. Saline.Systems. 2005;1:2.
  • Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin)

    Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is commonly found in a variety of animal foods such as fish, shellfish, meat and dairy products. Synthetic vitamin B12 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations and added to supplements and fortified foods such as cereals. An adequate supply of vitamin B12 is essential to maintain healthy nerve cell and red blood cell function, as well as for folate utilization 1 and for normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism 2.

    Blood levels of vitamin B12 tend to decline with age 2, and individuals with lower blood levels may be at greater risk of cognitive decline 4. Higher levels of intake of have been associated with improved cognitive function in elderly subjects 5,6,7.

    No adverse effects have been associated with vitamin B12 intake from food or supplements in healthy individuals 1. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 6 μg vitamin B12 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    Cyanocobalamin is the principal form of vitamin B12 for commercial use in fortified foods and dietary supplements. According to the FDA, cyanocobalamin is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21 CFR184.1945). Once absorbed through the intestine, it is converted to the active forms of vitamin B12 in the body.

     

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Miles LM, Allen E, Mills K, Clarke R, Uauy R, Dangour AD. Vitamin B-12 status and neurologic function in older people: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline trial data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological Function (OPEN) study. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:790-6.
    4. Morris MS, Selhub J, Jacques PF. Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the mini-mental state examination in the Framingham heart study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60:1457-64.
    5. La RA, Koehler KM, Wayne SJ, Chiulli SJ, Haaland KY, Garry PJ. Nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a normally aging sample: a 6-y reassessment. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:20-9.
    6. Walker JG, Batterham PJ, Mackinnon AJ et al. Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms--the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:194-203.
    7. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL et al. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch.Neurol. 2005;62:641-5.
  • Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine hydrochloride, pyridoxine 5-phosphate)

    Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and the release of glucose from glycogen 1. Major sources of vitamin B6 include fortified, ready-to-eat cereals; mixed foods (including sandwiches) with meat, fish or poultry as the main ingredient; white potatoes and other starchy vegetables; and non-citrus fruits. Vitamin B6 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
      Vitamin B6 is generally considered safe in adults and children when used appropriately at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg vitamin B6 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a form of vitamin B6 used in fortified foods and nutritional supplements. Pyridoxine hydrochloride is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as a direct food ingredient by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1676).
      Pyridoxine 5-phosphate (PNP) is the phosphorylated form of pyridoxine, or vitamin B6. In the body, it acts as an intermediate in the conversion of pyridoxine to the active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5-phosphate. The PNP form of vitamin B6 can be found in plant-derived foods. No adverse effects have been associated with high intake of vitamin B6 from food sources 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)

    Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin found mainly in fruits and vegetables, particularly in citrus fruits such as oranges. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and thereby demonstrates potent antioxidant activity. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to the disease scurvy, which involves the deterioration of elastic tissue, demonstrating the important role of ascorbic acid in the synthesis of connective tissues such as collagen in bones 1. Dietary vitamin C is efficiently absorbed through the intestine.
      Vitamin C is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.8013). The U.S. FDA has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 60 mgs vitamin C for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol)

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in two physiologically relevant forms, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Ergocalciferol is synthesized by plants and mushrooms, while cholecalciferol is synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. Some foods may also be fortified with vitamin D, such as milk and breakfast cereals. The current average daily intakes of vitamin D for Americans are well below suggested adequate intakes1, and much of the world’s population is deficient in this important vitamin 2.

    The main function of vitamin D is to regulate serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals. By influencing the absorption of calcium, vitamin D helps to form and maintain strong bones and teeth 3,4.

    Vitamin D supplementation helps prevent falls and maintain physical performance in the elderly4,5. Adequate vitamin D intake may also be important for maintaining immune health6,7, nervous system health8, may help improve mood during the winter months9,10 and improve overall quality of life11.

    Vitamin D is generally well tolerated at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 international units (IUs) vitamin D for adults and children 4 or more years of age. RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (% DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    According to the Endocrine Society’s Vitamin D Clinical Practice Guidelines, individuals who are at risk for vitamin D deficiencies should ask their physician to have their blood tested for the vitamin D metabolite [25(OH)D]. For individuals with blood 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/L, higher amounts of vitamin D intake are suitable: children ages 1–18 may need 600–1,000 IU daily,adults >18 age may need 1,500–2,000 IU vitamin D daily12.

     Many Americans Would Benefit from Intake of Supplemental Vitamin D Higher than Current RDAs


    Expand References

    References

    1. USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 2010.
    2. Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos.Int 2009;20:1807-20.
    3. Palacios C. The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:621-8..
    4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. 2010.
    5. Annweiler C, Montero-Odasso M, Schott AM, Berrut G, Fantino B, Beauchet O. Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects. J Neuroeng.Rehabil. 2010;7:50.
    6. van Etten E, Mathieu C. Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2005;97:93-101.
    7. Maggini S, Wintergerst ES, Beveridge S, Hornig DH. Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. Br J Nutr 2007;98 Suppl 1:S29-S35. .
    8. McCann JC, Ames BN. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction? FASEB J 2008;22:982-1001.
    9. Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence? Nutr Rev 2009;67:481-92. 10. .
    10. Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;135:319-23. .
    11. Norman AW, Bouillon R. Vitamin D nutritional policy needs a vision for the future. Exp Biol Med (Maywood.) 2010;235:1034-45.
    12. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1911-30.
  • Vitamin E (as d-alpha-tocopheryl succinate, mixed d-alpha-, d-beta-, d-delta-, d-gamma-tocopherols, and tocotrienols)

    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. In foods, vitamin E exists primarily as mixed tocopherols. Foods that contain vitamin E include: eggs, fortified cereals, fruit, green leafy vegetables, meat, nuts/nut oils, poultry, vegetable oils and whole grains. Vitamin E supplements are available in natural or synthetic forms. While the precise rate of vitamin E absorption is not known with certainty, it is believed to be variable and low. Reported rates of absorption of vitamin E following intake with food have varied from as high as 51%-86% to as low as 21%-29% 1. All forms of vitamin E, including all of the tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues, are absorbed through the intestine in a similar manner.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 30 international units (IUs) vitamin E for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      D-alpha-tocopheryl succinate (also called d-alpha tocopherol succinate or d-alpha tocopherol acid succinate) is an organic compound derived from vegetable oils that acts as a source of vitamin E. Most ingested d-alpha tocopherol succinate is converted to alpha-tocopherol in the intestine before being absorbed 2. Alpha-tocopherol, like other forms of vitamin E, demonstrates antioxidant activity 3. Alpha tocopherol acid succinate is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 4.
      Tocopherols and tocotrienols are organic compounds collectively known as vitamin E. They naturally exist as a mixture of d-alpha-, d-beta-, d-gamma- and d-delta-isoforms, each having antioxidant activities 5. Tocopherols are present in many foods, such as vegetable oils, nuts and grains. They are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods (21CFR182.3890) 4. Tocotrienols are present in foods such as cereal grains and cooking oils (i.e. palm, safflower, peanut and olive). Although tocotrienols are not as well studied compared to other forms of vitamin E, such as alpha-tocopherol, the safety of consumption of all forms of vitamin E is considered comparable.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    3. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    4. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
    5. Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Jones LS, Shigeri Y. Chemical reactivities and physical effects in comparison between tocopherols and tocotrienols: physiological significance and prospects as antioxidants. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007;104:439-45.
  • Watercress (leaf)

    Watercress, Nasturtium officinale, is a leaf vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. It is an aquatic plant grown in temperate areas of Germany, France and the United Kingdom 1. Watercress contain over 90% water, but is also an excellent source of vitamin K, a good source of vitamin A and a source of vitamin C 2. It also contains a number of flavonoid compounds that have antioxidant activities, such as quercetin and hesperetin 3.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 4. Watercress has a moderate glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 5.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    3. USDA Agricultural Research Service. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. USDA Department of Agriculture, 2003.
    4. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    5. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Zinc (as zinc glycinate)

    Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for the functioning of approximately 100 different enzymes in the body. It plays a vital role in many biological processes, such as the maintenance of protein structure, the regulation of gene expression and the metabolism of hormones. Zinc is abundant in red meats, certain seafood and whole grains, and many breakfast cereals are fortified with zinc. The proportion of dietary zinc absorbed is determined by the amount of zinc already present in the body, with higher absorption occurring when zinc status is low 1.
      Zinc is regarded as relatively safe and generally well tolerated when taken at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 15 mg zinc for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Zinc glycinate is a form of chelated zinc, in which a zinc ion is bound to the amino acid glycine. It is used as a source of the essential mineral zinc in dietary supplements.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

Formulation

  • Croscarmellose sodium

    Croscarmellose sodium, the sodium salt of a cellulose, is added to capsules, tablets and granules to help them disintegrate following ingestion. Croscarmellose sodium is generally regarded as an essentially nontoxic material. Consumption of large quantities may have a laxative effect, although the quantities used in capsules or tablets are unlikely to cause this problem 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.
  • Magnesium stearate

    Magnesium stearate, a salt of stearic acid, is widely used in cosmetics, foods, and capsules as a lubricating agent. In dietary supplements it may contain a mixture of magnesium salts of different fatty acids. 
      Magnesium stearate is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR184.1440) and is generally regarded as being nontoxic following oral administration. Oral consumption of large quantities may produce a laxative effect or cause mucosal irritation 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.
  • Microcrystalline cellulose

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MC) is a purified plant fiber that is widely used in food products and in dietary supplement tablets to: 1) bind ingredients together, or 2) help the tablet disintegrate properly.

    Following ingestion, MC is not absorbed by the human body. Because it is not absorbed, it has little potential for toxicity. Consumption of large quantities of cellulose may have a laxative effect, but this is unlikely to be a problem for individuals consuming the small amounts included in dietary supplement tablets 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
  • Pharmaceutical glaze

    Pharmaceutical glaze is an alcohol based solution of the naturally occurring material shellac, derived from the lac insect, Laccifer lacca. It is used in the dietary supplement industry for the enteric coating of tablets and capsules. Pharmaceutical glaze is included in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm. 2007.
  • Silicon dioxide

    Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is added to capsule and tablet formulations to reduce clumping 1. Silica is found in many foods, particularly whole grains (oats and barley), sugar beets, sugar cane, soybeans, turnips, green beans 2. The average intake of silica in adults is 14-21 mg/day 3. The bioavailability of silicate additives is low 4. Silica that occurs in food and water has not been shown to cause any adverse effects 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., 2006.
    2. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism. New York, New York: Elsevier, 1991.
    3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.
    4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Stearic acid

    Stearic acid is a naturally occurring fatty acid that is found in animal and vegetable fats. In dietary supplements, it is typically a combination of stearic and palmitic acids. Stearic acid is used as a lubricantin capsules and tablets and is also used widely in cosmetics and food products 1. It is used in topical formulations to assist in mixing ingredients and to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures 2.

    Stearic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR184.1090) and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritating material 1. It is also included in the U.S. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.
    2. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    3. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm. 2007.

Product Claims

Products

Catalyst™ Caplets

Product Numbers

12001: 120 Catalyst Caplets

Country

South Africa

Effective

October 2016

Supersedes

January 2012
  • Quality and Safety
    • Gluten-free
    • Naturally gluten-free
    • Free-from dairy, preservatives, artificial colors
    • Suitable for vegetarians
  • Benefits

    4/Day Catalyst Caplets


    • Vitamin/Mineral supplement
    • Formulated to help maintain good health*
    • Antioxidant support*
    • Fat-loss support
    • Support for the liver and nervous system*
    • Helps maintain normal, already healthy energy levels*
    • Helps maintain normal, already healthy blood sugar levels*
    • Helps maintain normal, already healthy blood pressure*
    • Helps maintain a normal, already healthy immune system*
    • Helps maintain normal, already healthy skin*
    • Helps maintain normal, already healthy eyes*
    • Helps maintain normal, already healthy gums*
    • Helps maintain a normal, already healthy kidneys*
    • Helps maintain normal, already healthy joints*
    • Helps maintain normal, already healthy nerves*
    • Provides 100% of the DV of vitamin A, vitamin D, niacin, folic acid, biotin, calcium, iodine, zinc, copper, manganese and molybdenum
    • Provides more than 100% of the DV of vitamin C, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, magnesium, selenium and chromium
TOP