Product Details

Naturally gluten-free. Suitable for vegetarians.

Meal replacement drink with vitamins, minerals, protein and fiber.

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Ingredients

Functional

  • Ascorbic acid

    Ascorbic acid, commonly known as vitamin C, is an essential water-soluble vitamin found mainly in fruits and vegetables, particularly in citrus fruits such as oranges. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and thereby demonstrates potent antioxidant activity. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to the disease scurvy, which involves the deterioration of elastic tissue, demonstrating the important role of ascorbic acid in the synthesis of connective tissues such as collagen in bones 1. Dietary vitamin C is efficiently absorbed through the intestine.
      Vitamin C is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.8013). The U.S. FDA has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 60 mgs vitamin C for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Beta-carotene

    Beta-carotene, also called provitamin A, is a member of a group of plant-produced compounds called carotenoids, which serve as precursors to vitamin A. Beta-carotene is a potent antioxidant. The ultimate source of all vitamin A is from the carotenes, and beta-carotene has the highest vitamin A activity 1. Beta-carotene is particularly abundant in orange vegetables and fruit, and may be directly added to foods as a vitamin supplement 2.

    Carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact, or be cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. There is no Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for beta-carotene or other provitamin A carotenoids. However, dietary provitamin A carotenoids have vitamin A activity that can be expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). The RDA for RAEs is 900 µg/day for men and 700 µg/day for women 3. Beta-carotene supplementation in humans is likely safe over long periods of time.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Food and Drugs. Title 21, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. 1999. 21CFR. Ref Type: Bill/Resolution
    3. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Biotin

    Biotin is a water-soluble B complex vitamin required for many reactions involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins 1. Biotin is found in many foods such as liver, egg yolk, green vegetables and whole grains.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 300 μg biotin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Cholecalciferol

    Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is a form of vitamin D that is commonly used in dietary supplements. Cholecalciferol is synthesized by humans in the skin when exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. However, for individuals who are insufficiently exposed to sunlight, vitamin D must be provided through the diet 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
  • Chromium dinicotinate glycinate

    Chromium dinicotinate glycinate is a form of chelated chromium, in which a trivalent chromium ion (Cr3+) is bound to nicotinic acid (niacin) and the amino acid glycine. Chromium chelates are often used as a source of chromium in dietary supplements 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Copper citrate

    Copper citrate is a copper salt of citric acid often used as a source of copper in dietary supplements.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

  • Cyanocobalamin

    Cyanocobalamin is the principal form of vitamin B12 for commercial use in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Once absorbed through the intestine, cyanocobalamin is converted to the active forms of vitamin B12 in the body. No adverse effects have been associated with B12 intake from food or supplements in healthy individuals at amounts far exceeding the recommended daily value 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate

    D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, or D-alpha tocopherol acetate, is an organic compound derived from vegetable oils that acts as a source of vitamin E. The natural form, d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, is more bioavailable than the synthetic form, dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Alpha-tocopheryl acetate is converted to alpha-tocopherol in the intestine before being absorbed 1. Alpha-tocopherol, like other forms of vitamin E, demonstrates antioxidant activity 2. Alpha-tocopherol acetate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Acuff RV, Thedford SS, Hidiroglou NN, Papas AM, Odom TA, Jr. Relative bioavailability of RRR- and all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate in humans: studies using deuterated compounds. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:397-402.
  • D-calcium pantothenate

    D-calcium pantothenate, or calcium D-pantothenate, is the principal supplemental form of the water-soluble vitamin pantothenic acid. It is often available in multivitamin and B-complex products 1. Calcium pantothenate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods (21CFR184.1212) 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Dipotassium phosphate

    Dipotassium phosphate is a water-soluble salt used to aid in the mixing of ingredients in foods, such as dairy products and cheese. It is a source of the nutrients phosphorous and potassium. Dipotassium phosphate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Ferrous fumarate

    Ferrous fumarate, an iron salt of fumaric acid, is often used as a source of iron in foods and dietary supplements. It is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a nutrient supplement in foods (21CFR184.1307d) 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Folic acid

    Folic acid, a water-soluble B-complex vitamin included in supplements and fortified foods, is used in the human body for synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids. Natural food sources of folate include dark green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits and juices, legumes and liver.

    Folic acid is well-tolerated in amounts found in fortified foods and dietary supplements. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 μg folate for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Fructose

    Fructose, also known as levulose, is a monosaccharide sugar that occurs naturally in honey and a number of fruits. It is used as a flavoring and sweetening agent in foods. Fructose is the sweetest sugar, sweeter than the other monosaccharide sugars glucose and sucrose 1. It is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Fructose

    Fructose, also known as levulose, is a monosaccharide sugar that occurs naturally in honey and a number of fruits. It is used as a flavoring and sweetening agent in foods. Fructose is the sweetest sugar, sweeter than the other monosaccharide sugars glucose and sucrose 1. It is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Magnesium oxide

    Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white mineral powder used as a source of magnesium in dietary supplements. It is also used as an excipient in oral formulations to bind excess water and to modify the pH (acidity or alkalinity) 1. Magnesium oxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1431) 2.

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    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
  • Manganese sulfate

    Manganese sulfate is the manganese salt of sulfuric acid. It is used as a source of manganese in dietary supplements. Manganese sulfate is considered generally recognized as safe for use as a nutrient supplement in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1461) 1.

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    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Niacinamide

    Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is a form of the B-complex vitamin niacin, or vitamin B3. It is the principal form of niacin used in dietary supplements and fortified foods 1. Niacinamide is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2.
      Niacinamide is also used in cosmetics and personal care products as a skin conditioning agent 3. According to the Cosmetic Ingredients Review (an independent committee established by the Personal Care Products Council, an industry trade association that thoroughly reviews and assesses the safety of ingredients used in cosmetics), niacinamide is safe to use in the amounts present in our products 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
    3. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    4. Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Cosmetic Ingredients Reference Table. http://www.cir-safety.org/staff_files/ReferenceTable.pdf. 7-31-2008.
  • Pea protein concentrate

    Pea protein concentrate. Peas, the small spherical seeds or seed-pods of the legume Pisum sativum, have been consumed as food for thousands of years, beginning with Chinese cultures as far back as 2000 B.C. Peas can be used as a source of protein in dietary supplements, containing almost as much protein by weight as eggs 1. Pea protein is highly digestible and a good source of essential amino acids, including lysine and the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Mariotti F, Pueyo ME, Tome D, Berot S, Benamouzig R, Mahe S. The influence of the albumin fraction on the bioavailability and postprandial utilization of pea protein given selectively to humans. J Nutr 2001;131:1706-13.
  • Potassium iodide

    Potassium iodide is an inorganic salt that occurs naturally in sea water and salt deposits. It is used in dietary supplements as a source of iodine. Potassium iodide is considered generally recognized as safe for use as a nutrient supplement in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1634) 1.

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    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Pyridoxine hydrochloride

    Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a form of vitamin B6 used in fortified foods and nutritional supplements. Pyridoxine hydrochloride is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as a direct food ingredient by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1676).

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

  • Riboflavin

    Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B2, which is involved in numerous metabolic processes and energy production in the body 1.Good dietary sources of riboflavin are milk, eggs, enriched cereals/grains, meats, liver and green vegetables. Riboflavin is commonly found in multivitamin and vitamin B complex preparations.
    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.7 mg riboflavin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      The limited capacity of humans to absorb orally administered riboflavin limits its potential for harm. No adverse effects associated with riboflavin consumption from food or supplements have been reported 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

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    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Rice protein concentrate

    Rice protein concentrate. Rice, Oryza sativa, is an excellent source of protein 1. Rice protein provides many essential amino acids to the diet, including the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine 2. Rice protein concentrate is often used in dietary supplements as an alternative to soy or whey protein to avoid any possible allergic reactions to those ingredients.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Safflower oil (non-hydrogenated)

    Safflower oil is derived from the seeds of the safflower plant, Carthamus tinctorius. It has been cultivated in Asia, Europe and the Americas for centuries. Safflower oil is utilized as a low in saturated fat cooking oil and in the production of margarine, as well as consumed as a dietary supplement. It is a rich source of the essential omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid 1. Safflower oil is likely safe when used orally and appropriately 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    2. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.
  • Selenomethionine

    Selenomethionine is an analogue of the amino acid methionine. The L-isomer is a common natural food source of selenium. There is evidence to suggest that selenomethionine is absorbed through the intestines and utilized by the body more easily than other forms of selenium found in foods and dietary supplements 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Shen L, van DK, Luten J, Deelstra H. Diffusibility of selenate, selenite, seleno-methionine, and seleno-cystine during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Biol Trace Elem Res 1997;58:55-63.
  • Sodium molybdate

    Sodium molybdate is an inorganic salt used as a source of the essential mineral molybdenum in dietary supplements.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

  • Soy protein isolate

    Soy protein isolate, produced from dehulled, defatted soybean flakes, contains 90%-95% protein and is the purest form of marketed soybean protein. Soy protein is an excellent source of essential amino acids, comparable to cow’s milk. Isolated soy protein is commonly added to meat, dairy and infant foods to enhance their protein content 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Stevia extract (leaf)

    Stevia extract is derived from the leaves of the plant, Stevia rebaudiana. Stevia extracts are used as natural sweeteners and as dietary supplements in a number of countries, including the United States 1. Much of the sweetness of stevia leaves is attributed to the presence of glycosides, including rebaudioside A, which is about 300 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar). Stevia also contains tannins and phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    2. Leung A, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1996.
  • Thiamin hydrochloride

    Thiamin hydrochloride is a salt of the B-complex vitamin thiamin. It is one of the primary forms of thiamin typically used in dietary supplements and fortified foods 1. Thiamin hydrochloride is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a nutrient supplement in foods (21CFR184.1875) 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Zinc citrate

    Zinc citrate is the zinc salt of citric acid used as a source of the essential mineral zinc in dietary supplements.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

Formulation

  • Carrageenan

    Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from species of red algae, including Gigartina skottsbergii, Chondrus crispus and Eucheuma cottonii. The solubility and gelling capability of carrageenans differ depending on the type of red algae used. Carrageenan has been used for hundreds of years as a food additive. In foods, it acts as a thickener and stabilizer 1. Carrageenan is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
  • Cellulose gum

    Cellulose gum, also known as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) sodium, is a derivative of cellulose, a natural compound found in the cell walls of many plants. It is commonly used in foods and oral formulations to increase thickness, to aid in disintegration and to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures 1. CMC sodium is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2. Consumption of large amounts may have a laxative effect 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Corn syrup solids (non-hydrogenated)

    Corn syrup solids are produced by removing water from corn syrup, which is made by the partial break down of corn starch. Depending on the amount of hydrolysis, the resultant corn syrup solids can be made up of a mixture of glucose, maltose and larger saccharides. Corn syrup solids are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Dicalcium phosphate

    Dicalcium phosphate (calcium phosphate, dibasic) is a white, odorless, tasteless powder used both as an excipient and as a source of calcium in dietary supplements. It is widely used in oral pharmaceutical products, food products and toothpastes and is generally regarded as a relatively nontoxic and nonirritant material 1. Calcium phosphate, dibasic is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
  • Lecithin

    Lecithin is a mixture of naturally occurring phospholipids, fatty substances that are major components of all cell membranes. It is used commercially as a natural way to stabilize liquid mixtures. One of the primary phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine is present in lecithin products at concentrations ranging from 20% – 90%, depending on whether the lecithin is derived from plant or animal sources. For use in dietary supplements, lecithin is produced mainly from plants, such as soybean, which contains around 20% phosphatidylcholine 1. Lecithin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for human consumption with the status generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR184.1400) 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Maltodextrin

    Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide produced from starch. Like starch, maltodextrin is easily digestible and absorbed through the intestine. As an excipient, maltodextrin is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material 1. Maltodextrin is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. FDA for use as a direct food substance (21CFR184.1444).

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
  • Mono- and diglycerides

    Mono- and diglycerides consist of a mixture of glycerol esters containing one or two fatty acids, respectively. Glycerides function as fat storage molecules in plant oils and animal fats. They are primarily used in foods and dietary supplements to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures 1. Mono- and diglycerides are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1505) 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Mono- and diglycerides

    Mono- and diglycerides consist of a mixture of glycerol esters containing one or two fatty acids, respectively. Glycerides function as fat storage molecules in plant oils and animal fats. They are primarily used in foods and dietary supplements to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures 1. Mono- and diglycerides are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1505) 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Natural flavor(s)

    Natural flavors are oils or extracts containing the flavoring constituents derived from a variety of sources. The natural flavors in Mannatech’s products may be derived from spices, fruits or fruit juices, vegetables or vegetable juices, herbs, bark, buds, roots, leaves or similar plant materials, or dairy products. The significant function of such ingredients in foods or supplements is for flavor rather than nutrition (21CFR501.22).

  • Silicon dioxide

    Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is added to capsule and tablet formulations to reduce clumping 1. Silica is found in many foods, particularly whole grains (oats and barley), sugar beets, sugar cane, soybeans, turnips, green beans 2. The average intake of silica in adults is 14-21 mg/day 3. The bioavailability of silicate additives is low 4. Silica that occurs in food and water has not been shown to cause any adverse effects 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., 2006.
    2. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism. New York, New York: Elsevier, 1991.
    3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.
    4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Silicon dioxide

    Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is added to capsule and tablet formulations to reduce clumping 1. Silica is found in many foods, particularly whole grains (oats and barley), sugar beets, sugar cane, soybeans, turnips, green beans 2. The average intake of silica in adults is 14-21 mg/day 3. The bioavailability of silicate additives is low 4. Silica that occurs in food and water has not been shown to cause any adverse effects 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., 2006.
    2. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism. New York, New York: Elsevier, 1991.
    3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.
    4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Sodium caseinate

    Sodium caseinate is the sodium salt of casein, the predominant protein found in cow’s milk and cheese. It can be used as a source of protein, as a thickening agent or to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures. Sodium caseinate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Xanthan gum

    Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide produced from the fermentation of plant carbohydrates by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose and mannose 1. It is commonly added to foods, where it serves as a stabilizing agent and a thickener 2. Xanthan gum is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive (21CFR172.695) 3.  Xanthan gum is also used as a skin conditioning agent, to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures and to thicken the texture of cosmetics and personal care products 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    2. Whistler RL, BeMiller JN. Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists. St. Paul, Minn.: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 1999.
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