Product Details

Naturally gluten-free. Suitable for vegetarians.

Mannatech’s Optimal Support Packets provide a daily serving of nutrients for optimal health and longevity. They support bone, prostate, colon, breast, endocrine and immune system health.*

Array
(
    [dietary] => Array
        (
            [0] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1108
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Aloe vera (inner leaf gel powder)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => aloe-vera-inner-leaf-gel-powder
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-08-20 19:15:13
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-08-20 19:15:13
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/aloe-vera-inner-leaf-gel-powder/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [1] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1111
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Arabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => arabinogalactan-from-larix-spp-wood
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-11-18 19:36:13
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-11-18 19:36:13
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/arabinogalactan-from-larix-spp-wood/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [2] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1117
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Australian bush plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana) (fruit)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => australian-bush-plum-terminalia-ferdinandiana-fruit
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/australian-bush-plum-terminalia-ferdinandiana-fruit/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [3] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1124
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Beta-sitosterol (from plant sterols)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => beta-sitosterol-from-plant-sterols
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:56
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/beta-sitosterol-from-plant-sterols/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [4] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1444
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Biotin (from baker's yeast)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => biotin-from-bakers-yeast
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-11-09 17:05:33
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-11-09 17:05:33
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/biotin-from-bakers-yeast/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [5] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1624
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:09
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:09
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Boron (from mustard sprout and boron amino acid chelate)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => boron-from-mustard-sprout-and-boron-amino-acid-chelate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:09
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:09
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/boron-from-mustard-sprout-and-boron-amino-acid-chelate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [6] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1127
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Broccoli (flower/stalk)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => broccoli-flowerstalk
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/broccoli-flowerstalk/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [7] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1128
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Broccoli concentrate (floret)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => broccoli-concentrate-floret-standardized-to-6-glucosinolates-sulforaphane
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-10-27 16:29:39
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-10-27 16:29:39
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/broccoli-concentrate-floret-standardized-to-6-glucosinolates-sulforaphane/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [8] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1131
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Brussels sprout (aerial part)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => brussels-sprout-aerial-part
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/brussels-sprout-aerial-part/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [9] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1134
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Cabbage (leaf)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => cabbage-leaf
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/cabbage-leaf/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [10] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1135
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Calcium
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => calcium
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/calcium/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [11] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1547
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Calcium carbonate
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => calcium-carbonate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-08-08 17:52:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-08-08 17:52:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/calcium-carbonate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [12] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1140
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Carrot (root)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => carrot-root
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/carrot-root/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [13] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1141
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Cauliflower (flower/stalk)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => cauliflower-flowerstalk
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/cauliflower-flowerstalk/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [14] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1454
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Chromium (from mustard sprout)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => chromium-from-mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/chromium-from-mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [15] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1456
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Copper (from mustard sprout)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => copper-from-mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/copper-from-mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [16] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1154
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Cranberry juice concentrate (fruit)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => cranberry-juice-concentrate-fruit
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/cranberry-juice-concentrate-fruit/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [17] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1457
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Folate (from baker's yeast)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => folic-acid-from-bakers-yeast
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-02-17 16:54:08
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-02-17 16:54:08
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/folic-acid-from-bakers-yeast/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [18] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1171
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Garlic (bulb)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => garlic-bulb
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/garlic-bulb/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [19] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1172
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Ghatti gum
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => ghatti-gum
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-11-09 17:50:13
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-11-09 17:50:13
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/ghatti-gum/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [20] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1179
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Glycine
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => glycine
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/glycine/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [21] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1184
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Grape skin extract
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => grape-skin-extract
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/grape-skin-extract/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [22] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1185
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Green tea extract (leaf)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => green-tea-extract-leaf
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-03-03 14:57:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-03-03 14:57:04
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/green-tea-extract-leaf/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [23] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1187
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Gum arabic
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => gum-arabic
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/gum-arabic/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [24] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1188
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Gum tragacanth
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => gum-tragacanth
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/gum-tragacanth/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [25] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1462
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Iodine (from mustard sprout)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => iodine-from-mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/iodine-from-mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [26] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1196
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Iron
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => iron
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/iron/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [27] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1198
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Kale (leaf)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => kale-leaf
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/kale-leaf/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [28] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1348
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => L-arginine (as L-arginine HCl)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => l-arginine-as-l-arginine-hcl
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/l-arginine-as-l-arginine-hcl/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [29] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1176
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => L-glutamic acid
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => l-glutamic-acid
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/l-glutamic-acid/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [30] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1349
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => L-lysine (as L-lysine HCl)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => l-lysine-as-l-lysine-hcl
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/l-lysine-as-l-lysine-hcl/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [31] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1203
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Magnesium
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => magnesium
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-03-23 18:24:19
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-03-23 18:24:19
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/magnesium/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [32] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1469
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Manganese (from mustard sprout)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => manganese-from-mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/manganese-from-mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [33] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1430
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Medium chain triglycerides
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => medium-chain-triglycerides
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:04
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/medium-chain-triglycerides/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [34] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1471
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Molybdenum (from mustard sprout)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => molybdenum-from-mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/molybdenum-from-mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [35] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1555
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Mustard sprout
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [36] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1473
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Niacin (from baker's yeast)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => niacin-from-bakers-yeast
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/niacin-from-bakers-yeast/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [37] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1216
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Onion (bulb)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => onion-bulb
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/onion-bulb/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [38] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1475
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Pantothenic acid (from baker's yeast)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => pantothenic-acid-from-bakers-yeast
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/pantothenic-acid-from-bakers-yeast/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [39] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1218
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Papaya (fruit)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => papaya-fruit
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/papaya-fruit/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [40] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1226
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Pineapple juice powder (fruit)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => pineapple-juice-powder-fruit
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/pineapple-juice-powder-fruit/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [41] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1233
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Quercetin dihydrate
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => quercetin-dihydrate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/quercetin-dihydrate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [42] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1529
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Red algae (Lithothamnium spp.)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => red-algae-lithothamnium-spp
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-29 21:23:38
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-29 21:23:38
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/red-algae-lithothamnium-spp/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [43] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1478
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Riboflavin (from baker's yeast)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => riboflavin-from-bakers-yeast
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/riboflavin-from-bakers-yeast/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [44] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1479
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Rutin (from Japanese sophora bud)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => rutin-from-japanese-sophora-bud
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-08-26 15:05:40
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-08-26 15:05:40
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/rutin-from-japanese-sophora-bud/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [45] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1481
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Selenium (from mustard sprout)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => selenium-from-mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/selenium-from-mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [46] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1241
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Sodium
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => sodium
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/sodium/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [47] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1483
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Thiamin (from baker's yeast)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => thiamin-from-bakers-yeast
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/thiamin-from-bakers-yeast/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [48] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1258
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Tomato (fruit)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => tomato-fruit
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/tomato-fruit/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [49] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1262
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Turnip (root)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => turnip-root
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/turnip-root/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [50] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1487
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vanadium (from mustard sprout)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vanadium-from-mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vanadium-from-mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [51] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1566
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin A (as mixed carotenoids from Blakeslea trispora fungus)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-a-as-mixed-carotenoids-from-blakeslea-trispora-fungus
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:07
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-a-as-mixed-carotenoids-from-blakeslea-trispora-fungus/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [52] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1625
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:09
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:09
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin B12 (from baker's yeast)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-b12-from-bakers-yeast
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-08-19 17:12:43
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-08-19 17:12:43
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-b12-from-bakers-yeast/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [53] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1492
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin B6 (from baker's yeast)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-b6-from-bakers-yeast
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-b6-from-bakers-yeast/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [54] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1495
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin C (from acerola fruit extract and ascorbic acid)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-c-from-acerola-fruit-extract-and-ascorbic-acid
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-c-from-acerola-fruit-extract-and-ascorbic-acid/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [55] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1498
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:05
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin D (as plant source ergocalciferol)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-d-as-plant-source-ergocalciferol
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-04-11 20:31:24
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-11 20:31:24
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-d-as-plant-source-ergocalciferol/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [56] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1506
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Vitamin E (as mixed tocopherols)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => vitamin-e-as-mixed-tocopherols
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/vitamin-e-as-mixed-tocopherols/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [57] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1276
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Wild yam extract
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => wild-yam-extract
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/wild-yam-extract/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [58] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1511
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Zinc (from mustard sprout)
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => zinc-from-mustard-sprout
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:06
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/zinc-from-mustard-sprout/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

        )

    [formulation] => Array
        (
            [0] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1147
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Citric acid
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => citric-acid
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-08-19 17:17:23
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-08-19 17:17:23
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/citric-acid/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [1] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1156
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Croscarmellose sodium
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => croscarmellose-sodium
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:57
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/croscarmellose-sodium/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [2] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1158
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Dextrin
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => dextrin
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/dextrin/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [3] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1159
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Dextrose monohydrate
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => dextrose-monohydrate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/dextrose-monohydrate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [4] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1160
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Dicalcium phosphate
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => dicalcium-phosphate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-29 21:21:28
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-29 21:21:28
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/dicalcium-phosphate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [5] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1347
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-04-11 18:30:52
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-11 18:30:52
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [6] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1204
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Magnesium stearate
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => magnesium-stearate
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/magnesium-stearate/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [7] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1208
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:21:59
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Microcrystalline cellulose
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => microcrystalline-cellulose
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-04-11 18:37:01
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-11 18:37:01
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/microcrystalline-cellulose/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [8] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1239
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Silicon dioxide
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => silicon-dioxide
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-29 21:24:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-29 21:24:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/silicon-dioxide/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [9] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1243
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Sodium carboxymethylcellulose
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => sodium-carboxymethylcellulose
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/sodium-carboxymethylcellulose/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [10] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1248
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Soy lecithin
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => soy-lecithin
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-29 21:24:27
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-29 21:24:27
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/soy-lecithin/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [11] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1254
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:00
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Stearic acid
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => stearic-acid
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-04-11 18:41:45
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-11 18:41:45
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/stearic-acid/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [12] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1278
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Xanthan gum
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => xanthan-gum
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:01
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/xanthan-gum/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [13] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1316
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Xylitol
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => open
                    [ping_status] => open
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => xylitol
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-07-28 22:22:02
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://mannatechscience.org/ingredient/xylitol/
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => ingredient
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

        )

)

Ingredients

Functional

  • Aloe vera (inner leaf gel powder)

    Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder  is the powder obtained from the freeze-dried gel from the leaves of the aloe vera plant, Aloe barbadensis.

    For centuries, the plant aloe vera has been used by cultures for its beneficial effects on human health 1. Today aloe vera gel continues to be used in supplements, foods, beverages, and cosmetics. Aloe leaves consist of two major parts, the outer leaf epidermis and the inner leaf gel, which are very different in their chemical composition and properties. Aloe gel is obtained from the inner portion of the leaves. Aloe gel is rich in nutrients and contains an abundant supply of glycoproteins and mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, galactose, arabinose, fucose, glucosamine, fructose, rhamnose and xylose 2.

    Much of the health benefits observed by the use of aloe vera gel may be attributed to its high molecular weight polysaccharides. Before a process was developed to stabilize aloe vera gel or extracts, fresh preparations were regarded as being required for any therapeutic efficacy 3. It has now been shown that careful drying of aloe vera gel can retain the polysaccharide content important for producing many of its health benefits 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 1996.
    2. Duncan, C., Ramberg, J., and Sinnott, R. Striking differences in Aloe vera gel carbohydrate composition, molecular weight and particle size distributions following processing will not be addressed by dietary supplement GMPs. Poster Presentation at the 5th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 17-20, 2008, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.
    3. Gjerstad G, Riner TD. Current status of aloe as a cure-all. Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health 1968;140:58-64.
    4. Ni Y, Turner D, Yates KM, Tizard I. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:1745-55.
  • Arabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood)

    Arabinogalactans are a class of long, densely branched high-molecular weight polysaccharides extracted for commercial uses from the bark of the Eastern and Western Larch trees, Larix larcinia and Larix occidentalis. Their monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, glucose and mannose 1. Larch arabinogalactans are considered a good source of prebiotic soluble dietary fiber 2,3. Small amounts of arabinogalactans can be found in some food plants, including corn, carrots, tomatoes, pears, wheat and red wine 4.

    A human double-blind, placebo-controlled trial indicates that intake of 1.5 grams of a larch arabinogalactan can enhance the antigenic response to a bacterial (tetanus) and viral (flu) challenges in healthy subjects 5. Both Ambrotose powders provide > 1.5 grams of this larch arabinogalactan/day.  Two human double-blind, placebo-controlled trials indicated that higher doses of  this arabinogalactan (4.5 grams) can enhance the response to a bacterial (pneumococcal) challenge 6,7.

    Larch arabinogalactans are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR172.610).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine's 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, San Diego, California.January 22-25, 2009. 2009.
    2. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
    3. Kelly GS. 'Larch arabinogalactan: clinical relevance of a novel immune-enhancing polysaccharide. Altern.Med Rev 1999;4:96-103.
    4. Cui SW. Polysaccharide Gums from Agricultural Products: Processing, Structures & Functionality. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 2001.
    5. Udani JK. Immunomodulatory effects of ResistAid: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multidose study. J Am Coll Nutr 2013;32:331-8.
    6. Udani JK, Singh BB, Barrett ML, Singh VJ. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers. Nutr J 2010;9:1-7.
    7. Riede L, Grube B, Gruenwald J. Larch arabinogalactan effects on reducing incidence of upper respiratory infections. Curr Med Res Opin 2013;29:251-8.
  • Australian bush plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana) (fruit)

    Australian bush plum, or Kakadu plum, is the fruit of a small deciduous tree, Terminalia ferdinandiana, found in northwestern Australia. Kakadu plums have been a food and medicinal source for aboriginal people for thousands of years 1. With an average vitamin C content of 3.0%–3.5% (range = 0.2%–5.9%), the bush plum is believed to be the single natural food source with the highest vitamin C content in the world 2. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration accepted the Australian bush plum as a New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) in 2005.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Isaacs J. Bush Food. Aboriginal Food and Herbal Medicine. The Rocks, Australia: Landsdowne Publishing Pty Ltd, 1997.
    2. Woods B. Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana). The Australian New Crops Newsletter (July 10). 1998.
  • Beta-sitosterol (from plant sterols)

    Beta-sitosterol. Phytosterols (PS) are fats present in plants–mostly in plant oils, nuts and seeds. Because the human body cannot produce PS, they must be obtained through the diet. Epidemiologic studies suggest that phytosterol intake supports good health 1. Processing of plant oils typically reduces their PS content 1. The average consumption of PS in industrialized Western countries is low, about 78 mg/day. Asian countries consume an average of 4 times that amount, about 400 mg/day 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Awad AB, Fink CS. Phytosterols as anticancer dietary components: evidence and mechanism of action. J Nutr 2000;130:2127-30.
    2. Ovesna Z, Vachalkova A, Horvathova K. Taraxasterol and beta-sitosterol: new naturally compounds with chemoprotective/chemopreventive effects. Neoplasma 2004;51:407-14.
  • Biotin (from baker's yeast)

    Biotin is a water-soluble B complex vitamin required for many reactions involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins 1. Biotin is found in many foods such as liver, egg yolk, green vegetables and whole grains.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 300 μg biotin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Boron (from mustard sprout and boron amino acid chelate)

    Boron is a trace mineral naturally occurring in many foods, but it is particularly abundant in peanut butter, wine, raisins and nuts. The U.S. FDA has not established a DV for boron, but growing evidence suggests it is essential to human beings. In the U.S., adult men consume a mean of 1.17 mg/day and women consume 0.96 mg/day. Vegetarian adults consume slightly more 1.
      Up to 18 mg/day of boron appears to be safe for adults even if taken for long periods of time. There is no evidence that it is either carcinogenic or mutagenic. No adverse effects have been observed in women taking boron supplements 2.
      Mustard sprout The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 3. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 4.
      Boron amino acid chelate A chelate is a chemical compound in the form of a heterocyclic ring, containing a metal ion (in this case boron) attached by coordinate bonds to at least two nonmetal ions. Organic compounds, such as amino acids, are typical chelators.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Rainey CJ, Nyquist LA, Christensen RE, Strong PL, Culver BD, Coughlin JR. Daily boron intake from the American diet. J Am Diet.Assoc. 1999;99:335-40.
    2. PDR Health Database. www.pdrhealth.com . 2007.
    3. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    4. 4 Elless MP, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Broccoli (flower/stalk)

    Broccoli. The leaves and stem of broccoli, Brassica oleracea italica, are an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin C. Broccoli also contains the additional nutrients protein, fiber, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid and biotin, as well as bioflavonoids 1. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant properties.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are biologically inactive, sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the biologically active metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Broccoli has a high glucosinolate content compared to other cruciferous vegetables, and broccoli extracts have a particularly high concentration of sulforaphane 3, 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    3. Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S A 1992;89:2399-403.
    4. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Broccoli concentrate (floret)

    Broccoli. The leaves and stem of broccoli, Brassica oleracea italica, are an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin C. Broccoli also contains the additional nutrients protein, fiber, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid and biotin, as well as bioflavonoids 1. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant properties.
    Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are biologically inactive, sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the biologically active metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Broccoli has a high glucosinolate content compared to other cruciferous vegetables, and broccoli extracts have a particularly high concentration of sulforaphane 3, 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    3. Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S A 1992;89:2399-403.
    4. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Brussels sprout (aerial part)

    Brussels sprout is a cruciferous vegetable closely related to the cabbage and a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. The sprouts are named for the area in which they were first cultivated sometime around the 15th century, Brussels, Belgium 1. Brussels sprouts are an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin K, and a good source of manganese. They are also a source of riboflavin, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, dietary fiber, protein, vitamin A, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate and potassium 2. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant activities.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 3. Brussels sprouts have a particularly high glucosinolate content compared to other cruciferous vegetables 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Cabbage (leaf)

    Cabbage is a cruciferous vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Cabbage ranks fifth in the world as a vegetable crop. The U.S. is one of the leading cabbage-producing countries, where about 15% of the total crop is made into sauerkraut and the rest is marketed fresh 1. Cabbage is an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin K, as well as a source of dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate and manganese 2.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 3. Cabbage has a high glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    3. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    4. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Calcium

    Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Over 99% of total body calcium is found in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is found throughout the body in blood, muscle and the intracellular fluid. Calcium is used for muscle contraction, blood vessel constriction and relaxation, the secretion of hormones and enzymes, and nervous system signaling. A constant level of calcium is needed to be maintained in the body in order for these processes to function properly. The body gets the calcium it needs through food and by being extracted from bones. Calcium-rich foods include dairy products and dark, leafy greens. For dietary calcium, vitamin D is important and recommended for optimal calcium absorption through the intestine. Calcium extraction from bones occurs when dietary calcium is insufficient and can lead to weakened bone structure 1.
    Many individuals in the U.S. consume inadequate amounts of calcium. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1,000 mg calcium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.
  • Calcium carbonate

    Calcium carbonate is an organic compound used as a source of the essential mineral calcium in dietary supplements. In a study of post-menopausal women, calcium carbonate was as bioavailable as calcium citrate 1. It is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Heaney, R.P., Dowell, S.D., Bierman, J., et al. Absorbability and cost effectiveness in calcium supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr 2001; 20(3): 239-46.
    2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Carrot (root)

    Carrot. The edible roots of the carrot plant, Dacus carota, are one of the world’s leading vegetable crops. Carrots are a member of the parsley family, Apiaceae or Umbelliferae, and are one of the richest vegetable sources of vitamin A and beta-carotene 1. Carrots are also a good source of vitamin K and a source of vitamin C, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, manganese, dietary fiber and potassium 2. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant activities.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Cauliflower (flower/stalk)

    Cauliflower is a cruciferous vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. The edible part of cauliflower is its large flower head, which is usually white but can also be colored light green or purple. Cauliflower is an excellent source of vitamin C and a good source of vitamin K, as well as a source of dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, pantothenic acid, potassium and manganese 1.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Cauliflower has a moderate glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    3. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Chromium (from mustard sprout)

    Chromium is an essential trace element that plays an important role in normal blood sugar regulation. Sources of dietary chromium include high-bran cereals, meats, poultry, fish and some beers and red wines. Only small amounts (<2.5%) of dietary chromium are absorbed through the intestine 1.
      No adverse effects have been associated with chromium intake from food or supplements 1. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 120 μg chromium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Copper (from mustard sprout)

    Copper is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and is present in small amounts in drinking water. Contributors of dietary copper include organ meats, seafood, nuts, wheat bran cereals and whole grain products. Copper is a component of multiple enzymes and is involved in numerous biochemical reactions in human cells, such as the reduction of molecular oxygen, the regulation of gene expression, mitochondrial function/cellular metabolism and the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg copper for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      The risk of adverse effects resulting from excess intake of copper from food, water and supplements appears to be very low in adults, but may be more likely in young children. Excess copper intake can lead to gastrointestinal disturbances and possible liver damage 1.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Cranberry juice concentrate (fruit)

    Cranberry juice concentrate. The cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, grows wild in eastern North America and is commonly associated with the holiday of Thanksgiving. Cranberries are consumed as whole berries (fresh or frozen) or as the primary ingredients in cranberry juice and cranberry sauce. Fresh cranberries are rich in fructose and the acids citric, quinic and benzoic 1. They are fairly low in calories and are also a source of fiber, bioflavonoids, potassium and vitamin C 2. When compared with a variety of other common fruits, cranberries contain the largest amount of phenolic antioxidants 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: Intercept, Ltd, 1999.
  • Folate (from baker's yeast)

    Folate is a water-soluble B complex vitamin that is used in the human body for synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids. Food sources of folate include dark green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits and juices, legumes and liver.

    Folate is well tolerated in amounts found in fortified foods and supplements. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 μg folate for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Garlic (bulb)

    Garlic, a member of the onion family Alliaceae, is an herb that has been used as a medicinal agent and a seasoning for many centuries 1. Garlic is an excellent source of calcium, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and manganese and a good source of protein, copper and phosphorus 2. Many of the health benefits of garlic are attributed to its sulfur-containing compounds – thiosulfinates, sulfoxides and dithiins – which are also responsible for its distinctive odor 3. Garlic and its derivatives are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as food additives (21CFR184.1317) 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    3. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    4. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Ghatti gum

    Ghatti gum, a mixture of complex polysaccharides, comes from the bark of Anogeissus latifolia, a large tree native to India and Sri Lanka. Monosaccharide constituents include arabinose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucuronic acid. Ghatti gum is used in supplements, foods, drugs and cosmetics. It contains as much as 80% soluble dietary fiber 1.

    Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon 2. Test tube studies have demonstrated the fermentation of ghatti gum by the beneficial human bacteria species Bifidobacterium 3,4. Ghatti gum is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is permitted for use as a food (21CFR184.1333).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Glicksman M. Gum Ghatti (Indian gum). In: Glicksman M, ed. Food Hydrocolloids. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1983:31-7.
    2. Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.
    3. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
    4. Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.
  • Glycine

    Glycine is a non-essential amino acid found in meats, whole grains, and dairy products. Glycine is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR172.320).

  • Grape skin extract

    Grape skin extract. Grapes, the fruit of the grape vine Vitis vinifera, are the leading fruit crop in the world. Although they are popular as a fresh fruit, grapes are also used to make juices, jams, jelly, raisins and wine 1. Many health benefits provided by grapes and their products are attributed to their abundant polyphenols. The polyphenols in grapes include resveratrol and flavonoids: quercetin (and its glycoside, rutin), kaempferol, anthocyanins, tannins and myricetin. These compounds are present in the skins, seeds and stems of the grape and many demonstrate potent antioxidant activity 2. Grapes also contain plant acids, sugars, amino acids, minerals and small amounts of vitamins C and E 3, 4. Grape skin extract is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the coloring of beverages and other foods (21CFR73.170) 5.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Torres JL, Varela B, Garcia MT et al. Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:7548-55.
    3. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
    4. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. J Clin Lab Anal. 1997;11:287-313.
    5. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Green tea extract (leaf)

    Green tea extract is made from the leaves of the evergreen tree, Camellia sinensis. Green, black and oolong teas all come from the leaves of the same plant; their unique flavors and properties are the result of different processing methods. For green tea, the leaves are steamed, rolled and dried. This process inactivates the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, thus preserving the four principal polyphenol catechins in tea: epicatechin (EC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). EGCG is the most abundant, accounting for 50-80% of catechins. When black tea is processed these polyphenols are oxidized, yielding other catechins, primarily theaflavins and thearubigins 1. A typical brewed cup (240 ml) of green tea can contain up to 300 mg catechins 2 and 30 mg caffeine 3 and also contains trace elements and vitamins.

    Tea has been used by humans for thousands of years, first as a medicinal herb and then as a beverage. Today, it ranks second only to water as the world’s most popular beverage 4. In a recent review, subjects drinking tea consistently reported improvements attention, alertness and arousal following tea intake and there were also indications of improved work performance and creativity 5. Because populations in which tea is regularly consumed appear to enjoy longer and healthier lives, 6 scientists have been interested in better understanding how tea might exert such effects. The flavonoid compounds, particularly the catechins, are thought to be responsible for the majority of green tea’s health benefits7,8,9,10.

    Intake of green tea, green tea extracts or EGCG have also shown promise for human subjects in increasing thermogenesis 11 and improving or maintaining a healthy body composition12. In overweight adults, intake of EGCG has increased fat oxidation 13,14,15, and a green tea extract increased whole body fat utilization during exercise in healthy normal BMI men 16. In addition, intake of green tea extracts or EGCG have supported healthy blood glucose/insulin levels in human subjects 17,18,19.

    The antioxidant properties of tea components have been studied extensively. These molecules are free radical and oxy species interceptors, iron chelators, enzymatic radical generator inhibitors, electron donors, and superoxide radical scavengers 20. Most antioxidant compounds are active in either the lipid or aqueous portion of cells. EGCG is unique in that it is a potent antioxidant in both aqueous and lipid environments 21. The antioxidant potential of EGCG is far greater than that of vitamin E and/or vitamin C 22. Green tea constituents may also work synergistically with other antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C 22,23.

    Tea is considered to be safe when used orally in low or moderate amounts (up to approximately eight cups daily).

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng X. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annu.Rev Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2002;42:25-54.
    2. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. 2.1, 1-128. 2007.
    3. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com . 2014.
    4. Yang CS, Hong J. Annu.Rev Nutr. 2013;33:161-81
    5. Einother SJ, Martens VE. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:1700S-8S.
    6. Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K et al. JAMA 2006;296:1255-65.
    7. Islam MA. Cardiovascular effects of green tea catechins: progress and promise. Recent Pat Cardiovasc.Discov. 2012;7:88-99.
    8. Thavanesan N. The putative effects of green tea on body fat: an evaluation of the evidence and a review of the potential mechanisms. Br J Nutr 2011;106:1297-309.
    9. Song J, Xu H, Liu F, Feng L. Tea and cognitive health in late life: current evidence and future directions. J Nutr Health Aging 2012;16:31-4.
    10. Mak JC. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2012;39:265-73.
    11. Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation. Physiol Behav. 2010;100:42-6.
    12. Huang J, Wang Y, Xie Z, Zhou Y, Zhang Y, Wan X. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68:1075-87.
    13. Thielecke F, Rahn G, Bohnke J et al. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:704-13.
    14. Boschmann M, Thielecke F. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26:389S-95S.
    15. Ota N, Soga S, Shimotoyodome A et al. Effects of combination of regular exercise and tea catechins intake on energy expenditure in humans. J Health Sci 2005;51:233-6.
    16. Ichinose T, Nomura S, Someya Y, Akimoto S, Tachiyashiki K, Imaizumi K. Effect of endurance training supplemented with green tea extract on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21:598-605.
    17. Bogdanski P, Suliburska J, Szulinska M, Stepien M, Pupek-Musialik D, Jablecka A. Nutr Res. 2012;32:421-7.
    18. Suliburska J, Bogdanski P, Szulinska M, Stepien M, Pupek-Musialik D, Jablecka A. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;149:315-22.
    19. Hill AM, Coates AM, Buckley JD, Ross R, Thielecke F, Howe PR. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26:396S-402S.
    20. Jovanovic SV, Simic MG. Antioxidants in nutrition. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci 2000;899:326-34.
    21. Ahmed S, Rahman A, Hasnain A, Lalonde M, Goldberg VM, Haqqi TM. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the IL-1 beta-induced activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in human chondrocytes. Free Radic.Biol Med 2002;33:1097-105.
    22. Chen A, Zhang L, Xu J, Tang J. The antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits activated hepatic stellate cell growth and suppresses acetaldehyde-induced gene expression. Biochem J 2002;368:695-704.
    23. Cai YJ, Ma LP, Hou LF, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL. Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Chem Phys.Lipids 2002;120:109-17.
  • Gum arabic

    Gum arabic, also known as gum acacia, is the gum that exudes from the acacia tree, Acacia senegal or Acacia seyal. Gum arabic is a water-soluble dietary fiber used primarily to control the consistency of food and beverages. Monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, glucuronic acid and rhamnose 1. Gum arabic is included in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 2. It is also an approved food additive by the U.S. FDA 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Whistler RL, BeMiller JN. Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists. St. Paul, Minn.: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 1999.
    2. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm . 2007.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html . 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Gum tragacanth

    Gum tragacanth comes from the stems and branches of the flowering plant Astragalus gummifer. The raw gum is made up of a mixture of two polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid 1. Gum tragacanth has been approved for use in pharmaceuticals in the U.S. since 1820 and in foods since 1925 2. Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon 3. Test tube studies have demonstrated that gum tragacanth can be digested by a number of bacteria that inhabit the human colon, including the beneficial Bifidobacteria species 4,5. Gum tragacanth is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is commonly added to foods (21CFR184.1351).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Anderson DM, Howlett JF, McNab CG. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.). Food Addit Contam 1985;2:231-5.
    2. Anderson DM. Evidence for the safety of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.) and modern criteria for the evaluation of food additives. Food Addit Contam 1989;6:1-12.
    3. Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.
    4. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
    5. Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.
  • Iodine (from mustard sprout)

    Iodine is an essential element required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, normal functioning of the thyroid gland, a gland actively involved in the regulation of metabolism, requires iodine. Humans obtain iodine from their diets. Iodine deficiency is rare in industrialized countries such as the United States due to the enrichment of table salt with iodine. Under normal conditions, the absorption of dietary iodine is greater than 90 percent 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 150 μg iodine for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Iron

    Iron is an essential mineral that primarily functions in the movement of oxygen from the environment to the tissues. There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Sources of heme iron include meat, fish and poultry. Sources of non-heme iron include beans, lentils, flours, cereals and grains. Iron levels are tightly regulated in the human body, mainly by controlling the amount of iron absorbed from food. The proportion of dietary iron absorbed is determined by the iron requirement of the individual; more iron present in the body means less iron is absorbed through the intestine. Heme iron is more easily absorbed than non-heme iron 1.
    The risk of adverse effects from food sources of iron is low. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 18 mg iron for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Kale (leaf)

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. It is an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K and manganese, as well as a source of dietary fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin B6, calcium, potassium and copper 1. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant activities.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Kale has a moderate to high glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
  • L-arginine (as L-arginine HCl)

    Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid, is particularly abundant in meats, whole grains, and dairy products 1. Under normal conditions the body can synthesize sufficient arginine to meet physiological needs. Stress conditions put an increased demand on the body for arginine and, under these conditions, dietary arginine becomes essential 2, 3. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), arginine can be safely added to foods (21CFR172.320).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Braverman ER, Pfeiffer CC, Blum K, Smayda R. The Healing Nutrients Within. New Canaan, Ct.: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1997.
  • L-glutamic acid

    Glutamic acid, a non-essential amino acid, is found in many meats, whole grains, and dairy products 1. Glutamic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR182.1045) and appears to be well tolerated when given orally 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Braverman ER, Pfeiffer CC, Blum K, Smayda R. The Healing Nutrients Within. New Canaan, Ct.: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1997.
    2. Food and Drugs. Title 21, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. 4-1-2000. 21CFR. Ref Type: Bill/Resolution
  • L-lysine (as L-lysine HCl)

    Lysine is an essential amino acid (it must be supplied by the diet). Mostly provided by protein intake, it is probably the least abundant amino acid present in foods 1. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lysine can be safely added to foods (21CFR172.320).

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 1996.
  • Magnesium

    Magnesium is a mineral necessary for human life. Magnesium is essential to all living cells, but nearly 50% is found within the bones, where it plays a major role in bone and mineral homeostasis. Magnesium is also important for many cellular reactions, such as energy generation, cell membrane stabilization and protein activation. Food sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, nuts, meat, starches and milk1,2. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 mg magnesium for adults and children 4 or more years of age. RDIs, which are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals, serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels. Supplementation with magnesium is appropriate for many, as more than half of the U.S. population consumes less than 245 mg/day. When ingested as a naturally occurring substance in foods, magnesium has not been demonstrated to exert any adverse effects. However, mild gastrointestinal disturbances have been observed with excess magnesium intake from nonfood sources 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.
  • Manganese (from mustard sprout)

    Manganese is an essential nutrient that activates a number of enzymes involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Dietary manganese can be found in grain products, vegetables and beverages such as tea. Only a small percentage of dietary manganese is absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg manganese for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Medium chain triglycerides

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are medium-chain fatty acid esters of glycerol. For commercial purposes, MCTs are derived from coconut or palm kernel oils. Once ingested, they are rapidly absorbed from the small intestine and then transported to the liver where they are broken down to produce energy for the body 1. MCTs are used as dietary supplements as well as formulation ingredients, acting as fillers or lubricants, to stabilize mixtures and to aid in absorption 2. MCTs are likely safe when used orally and appropriately 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Physicians’ Desk Reference, Inc, 2008.
    2. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    3. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Molybdenum (from mustard sprout)

    Molybdenum is an essential trace element that functions as a cofactor for a number of enzymes in the body, some of which are involved in the metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides. The molybdenum content of plant foods varies depending upon the soil content in which they are grown. Legumes, grain products and nuts are major contributors of molybdenum to the diet. Dietary molybdenum is efficiently absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 75 μg molybdenum for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Mustard sprout

    Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 1. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil or hydroponic solutions can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Niacin (from baker's yeast)

    Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinamide. Niacin is a precursor to the most central electron carrier substances in living cells, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), thus functioning in many metabolic pathways 1. Foods that contain niacin include beans, liver, fish, poultry and cereal grains.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 20 mg niacin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Onion (bulb)

    Onion. The underground bulb of the onion plant, Allium cepa, is the sixth leading vegetable crop in the world. It is thought that onion consumption dates as far back as prehistoric man 1. Onions are a source of vitamin C, vitamin B6, manganese, thiamin, folate, phosphorus and potassium 2. Many of the health benefits of onions are attributed to its sulfur-containing compounds, which are also responsible for the onion’s distinctive odor and its ability to bring tears to the eyes when cut. Onions are also a source of antioxidant flavonoids, such as quercetin 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Pantothenic acid (from baker's yeast)

    Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, is an essential B complex vitamin that is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), a molecule that is involved in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrates and proteins 1. Rich food sources of pantothenic acid include chicken, beef, potatoes, oat cereals, tomato products, liver, kidney, egg yolk, broccoli and whole grains. In commercial supplement products, pantothenic acid is available as calcium or sodium D-pantothenate or as pantothenol. Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 10 mg pantothenic acid for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Papaya (fruit)

    Papaya is the fruit of the papaya tree, Carica papaya, native to tropical Central America 1. Papayas are an excellent source of vitamins A and C, and a source of dietary fiber, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate and potassium 2. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant activities.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Pineapple juice powder (fruit)

    Pineapple juice powder. Pineapple juice is extracted from the fresh fruit pineapple, Ananas comosus. The pineapple is native to South America and is now cultivated in tropical environments all over the world 1. Fresh pineapple is a source of bromelain, an enzyme that digests protein 2. It is also an excellent source of vitamin C and manganese, and a source of dietary fiber, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, magnesium, potassium and copper 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Quercetin dihydrate

    Quercetin dihydrate. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid that, like other flavonoids, demonstrates antioxidant activity. It is found in many plant foods – such as onions, grapefruit, broccoli and apples – as well as in plant-derived beverages like tea and red wine. Berries are also believed to be a good source of bioavailable quercetin (black currants, lingonberries and bilberries). Quercetin is sometimes used as an ingredient in multivitamin preparations and herbal remedies. The amount of quercetin absorbed through the intestine varies depending on its source. Quercetin is generally safe and well tolerated when consumed in amounts naturally found in foods 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
  • Red algae (Lithothamnium spp.)

    Red algae (Lithothamnium spp.) are species of algae that are rich in the essential minerals calcium and magnesium and contain a number of trace minerals including manganese, selenium and zinc 1. Lithothamnium species belong to the family of coralline algae, Corallinaceae. They are harvested off the coasts of Britain and France to be used as a source of calcium (calcium carbonate) and magnesium (magnesium carbonate) in dietary supplements.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Frestedt JL, Walsh M, Kuskowski MA, Zenk JL. Nutr J 2008;7:9.
  • Riboflavin (from baker's yeast)

    Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B2, which is involved in numerous metabolic processes and energy production in the body 1.Good dietary sources of riboflavin are milk, eggs, enriched cereals/grains, meats, liver and green vegetables. Riboflavin is commonly found in multivitamin and vitamin B complex preparations.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.7 mg riboflavin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      The limited capacity of humans to absorb orally administered riboflavin limits its potential for harm. No adverse effects associated with riboflavin consumption from food or supplements have been reported 1.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Rutin (from Japanese sophora bud)

    Rutin is a flavonol glycoside comprised of quercetin and rutinose. An antioxidant,1,2 rutin is found in many foods, especially buckwheat, black tea, apple peels, onions and citrus fruits.3
    The flower buds of the Japanese sophora or pagoda tree, Sophora japonica, are a rich source of the bioflavonoid rutin. The buds have been used for centuries in Chinese cultures, and the tree is often used in bonsai horticulture.4

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. La, C.C., Villegas, I., arcon de la, L.C., et al. Evidence for protective and antioxidant properties of rutin, a natural flavone, against ethanol induced gastric lesions. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 71(1-2): 45-53.
    2. Kamel, K.M., bd El-Raouf, O.M., Metwally, S.A., et al. Hesperidin and rutin, antioxidant citrus flavonoids, attenuate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2014; 28(7): 312-9.
    3. PDR Health Database. www. pdrhealth. com. 2007.
    4. Natural Standard Database. www. naturalstandard. com. 2014.
  • Selenium (from mustard sprout)

    Selenium is a trace mineral found in soil, water and some foods. The selenium content of food varies depending on the selenium content of the soil where the animal was raised or the plant was grown. Selenium is an essential element in several metabolic pathways and functions largely through its association with proteins, known as selenoproteins. Known biological functions of selenium include defense against oxidative stress and regulation of thyroid hormone action. Absorption of selenium is efficient with more than 90 percent of selenomethionine, the major dietary form of the element, being absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 70 μg selenium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Sodium

    Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in humans. Sodium is necessary for regulating the water content of blood and other bodily fluids and is transported across cell membranes to regulate the transmission of nerve impulses and heart activity. Salt (sodium chloride) is the primary form of sodium in the diet. Other forms of sodium found in food include monosodium glutamate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite, sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate. The amount of dietary sodium that is absorbed through the intestine is approximately 98% 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Daily Reference Value (DRV) of 2,400 mg sodium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). DRVs are a set of dietary references for energy-producing nutrients, cholesterol, sodium and potassium that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. DRVs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      It is well-recognized that the current intake of sodium for most individuals in the United States exceeds recommended doses. The most common adverse effect seen with high sodium intake is an increase in blood pressure 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.
  • Thiamin (from baker's yeast)

    Thiamin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, also known as vitamin B1. It functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids 1. Dietary sources of thiamin include beef, pork, breads, seeds and whole grain cereals. Dietary thiamin is minimally absorbed through the intestine.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.5 mg thiamin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Tomato (fruit)

    Tomato is the fruit of the plant, Lycopersicon esculentum, and a member of the Nightshade family, Solanceae. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from cherry tomatoes, 1–2 cm in diameter, to beefsteak tomatoes, 10 cm or more in diameter. Tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin A and well-known for their lycopene content, an important antioxidant nutrient 1. Ripe (red) tomatoes contain 3 to 4 times as much vitamin A as mature green tomatoes 2. Tomatoes are also a good source of vitamin K and a source of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate and manganese 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
  • Turnip (root)

    Turnip is a root vegetable that is a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Turnips are a good source of vitamin C and a source of dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, potassium, copper and manganese 1.
      Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Turnips have a moderate glucosinolate content when compared with other cruciferous vegetables 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. United States Department of Agriculture. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00. 2008.
    2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    3. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Vanadium (from mustard sprout)

    Vanadium is a trace element found in foods such as mushrooms, shellfish, black pepper, parsley, grains and grain products. The absorption of ingested vanadium is less than 5 percent 1.
      A biological role of vanadium in humans is unclear. Therefore, neither a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) nor a Daily Reference Value (DRV) has been set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Vitamin A (as mixed carotenoids from Blakeslea trispora fungus)

    Vitamin A, also called retinol, is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for humans. Adequate intake is important for normal vision and immune function. Dietary vitamin A can be provided as both preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids that are precursors to vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A is abundant in animal-derived foods like liver, kidney, eggs, and dairy products. Carotenoids, like beta-carotene, are found in darkly colored fruits and vegetables. Preformed vitamin A is efficiently absorbed through the intestines, while carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact or cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. The proportion of beta-carotene converted to vitamin A decreases as beta-carotene intake increases, limiting the risk of vitamin A toxicity 1.
      Dietary preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids have vitamin A activity that can be expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) or international units (IU). In the U.S., 1 RAE is equal to 3.33 IU vitamin A. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 5,000 IUs vitamin A for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Blakeslea trispora is a fungus that can be used as a source of carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, gamma-carotene and lycopene, for dietary supplements 2, 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Olempska-Beer Z. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Lycopene from Blakeslea trispora Chemical and Technical Assessment. 2006. College Park, Maryland.
    3. Jeong J, Lee I, Kim S, Park Y. Stimulation of beta-carotene synthesis by hydrogen peroxide in Blakeslea trispora. Biotechnology Letters 1999;21:683–6.
  • Vitamin B12 (from baker's yeast)

    Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is commonly found in a variety of animal foods such as fish, shellfish, meat and dairy products. Synthetic vitamin B12 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations and added to supplements and fortified foods such as cereals. An adequate supply of vitamin B12 is essential to maintain healthy nerve cell and red blood cell function, as well as for folate utilization. The average fractional absorption of vitamin B12 from food by healthy individuals is approximately 50 percent, while synthetic vitamin B12 has increased bioavailability 1.
    No adverse effects have been associated with vitamin B12 intake from food or supplements in healthy individuals 1. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 6 μg vitamin B12 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
    Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Vitamin B6 (from baker's yeast)

    Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and the release of glucose from glycogen 1. Major sources of vitamin B6 include fortified, ready-to-eat cereals; mixed foods (including sandwiches) with meat, fish or poultry as the main ingredient; white potatoes and other starchy vegetables; and non-citrus fruits. Vitamin B6 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
      Vitamin B6 is generally considered safe in adults and children when used appropriately at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg vitamin B6 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Vitamin C (from acerola fruit extract and ascorbic acid)

    Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin found mainly in fruits and vegetables, particularly in citrus fruits such as oranges. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and thereby demonstrates potent antioxidant activity. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to the disease scurvy, which involves the deterioration of elastic tissue, demonstrating the important role of ascorbic acid in the synthesis of connective tissues such as collagen in bones 1. Dietary vitamin C is efficiently absorbed through the intestine.
       Vitamin C is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.8013). The U.S. FDA has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 60 mgs vitamin C for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
    Acerola extract is obtained from the fruit of the small tree, Malpighia glabra or Malpighia punicifolia. Acerola is grown in tropical regions of the Americas. The fruit is known for being one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C and also contains vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and polyphenols, such as anthocyanins. Acerola fruit extract acts as an antioxidant, likely due to the presence of some of these nutrients 2. Most acerola fruit is processed into fruit products, such as jams, jellies and juices, or added to dietary supplements as a source of vitamin C 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    3. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Vitamin D (as plant source ergocalciferol)

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in two physiologically relevant forms, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Ergocalciferol is synthesized by plants and mushrooms, while cholecalciferol is synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. Some foods may also be fortified with vitamin D, such as milk and breakfast cereals. The current average daily intakes of vitamin D for Americans are well below suggested adequate intakes1, and much of the world’s population is deficient in this important vitamin 2.

    The main function of vitamin D is to regulate serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals. By influencing the absorption of calcium, vitamin D helps to form and maintain strong bones and teeth 3,4.

    Vitamin D supplementation helps prevent falls and maintain physical performance in the elderly4,5. Adequate vitamin D intake may also be important for maintaining immune health6,7, nervous system health8, may help improve mood during the winter months9,10 and improve overall quality of life11.

    Vitamin D is generally well tolerated at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 international units (IUs) vitamin D for adults and children 4 or more years of age. RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (% DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    According to the Endocrine Society’s Vitamin D Clinical Practice Guidelines, individuals who are at risk for vitamin D deficiencies should ask their physician to have their blood tested for the vitamin D metabolite [25(OH)D]. For individuals with blood 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/L, higher amounts of vitamin D intake are suitable: children ages 1–18 may need 600–1,000 IU daily,adults >18 age may need 1,500–2,000 IU vitamin D daily12.

     Many Americans Would Benefit from Intake of Supplemental Vitamin D Higher than Current RDAs


    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 2010.
    2. Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos.Int 2009;20:1807-20.
    3. Palacios C. The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:621-8..
    4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. 2010.
    5. Annweiler C, Montero-Odasso M, Schott AM, Berrut G, Fantino B, Beauchet O. Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects. J Neuroeng.Rehabil. 2010;7:50.
    6. van Etten E, Mathieu C. Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2005;97:93-101.
    7. Maggini S, Wintergerst ES, Beveridge S, Hornig DH. Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. Br J Nutr 2007;98 Suppl 1:S29-S35. .
    8. McCann JC, Ames BN. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction? FASEB J 2008;22:982-1001.
    9. Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence? Nutr Rev 2009;67:481-92. 10. .
    10. Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;135:319-23. .
    11. Norman AW, Bouillon R. Vitamin D nutritional policy needs a vision for the future. Exp Biol Med (Maywood.) 2010;235:1034-45.
    12. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1911-30.
  • Vitamin E (as mixed tocopherols)

    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. In foods, vitamin E exists primarily as mixed tocopherols. Foods that contain vitamin E include: eggs, fortified cereals, fruit, green leafy vegetables, meat, nuts/nut oils, poultry, vegetable oils and whole grains. Vitamin E supplements are available in natural or synthetic forms. While the precise rate of vitamin E absorption is not known with certainty, it is believed to be variable and low. Reported rates of absorption of vitamin E following intake with food have varied from as high as 51%-86% to as low as 21%-29% 1. All forms of vitamin E, including all of the tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues, are absorbed through the intestine in a similar manner.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 30 international units (IUs) vitamin E for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Tocopherols, along with tocotrienols, are organic compounds collectively known as vitamin E. Natural tocopherols exist as a mixture of d-alpha-, d-beta-, d-gamma- and d-delta-isoforms, each having antioxidant activities 2. Tocopherols are present in many foods, such as vegetable oils, nuts and grains. They are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods (21CFR182.3890) 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Jones LS, Shigeri Y. Chemical reactivities and physical effects in comparison between tocopherols and tocotrienols: physiological significance and prospects as antioxidants. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007;104:439-45.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Wild yam extract

    Wild yam extract (root). The roots of Dioscorea species are true yams and are not related to the sweet potato, which is incorrectly called a yam in the U.S. Dioscorea tubers typically contain 80-90% starch, are low in protein, and contain appreciable amounts of vitamin C and calcium 1. Dioscorea species are also a rich source of the saponin, diosgenin 2. The roots are commonly consumed in Africa, the tropics, Central America, and the Caribbean. In West Africa, they may comprise 0.3-49% of total daily caloric intake 1. An extract of D. villosa has been subjected to extensive safety testing and did not cause adverse effects when consumed in large amounts by adults 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Coursey DG. The role of yams in West African Food economies. World Crops 1965;74-82.
    2. Mirkin G. Estrogen in yams. J Am Med Assoc 1991;265:912.
    3. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam) root extract. Int J Toxicol 2004;23 Suppl 2:49-54.
  • Zinc (from mustard sprout)

    Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for the functioning of approximately 100 different enzymes in the body. It plays a vital role in many biological processes, such as the maintenance of protein structure, the regulation of gene expression and the metabolism of hormones. Zinc is abundant in red meats, certain seafood and whole grains, and many breakfast cereals are fortified with zinc. The proportion of dietary zinc absorbed is determined by the amount of zinc already present in the body, with higher absorption occurring when zinc status is low 1.
      Zinc is regarded as relatively safe and generally well tolerated when taken at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 15 mg zinc for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Formulation

  • Citric acid

    Citric acid occurs naturally in a number of plant species, including lemons and pineapples. It is also found naturally in the human body, mainly in the bones. In food products, citric acid is used as a flavor enhancer for its tart, acidic taste. As an excipient, it is used primarily to adjust the pH (the acidity or alkalinity) of a product 1. It is also used in skin care products for fragrance 2. Citric acid is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 3. It is also included in the U.S. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
    4. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm. 2007.
  • Croscarmellose sodium

    Croscarmellose sodium, the sodium salt of a cellulose, is added to capsules, tablets and granules to help them disintegrate following ingestion. Croscarmellose sodium is generally regarded as an essentially nontoxic material. Consumption of large quantities may have a laxative effect, although the quantities used in capsules or tablets are unlikely to cause this problem 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.
  • Dextrin

    Dextrin is any one of a number of polysaccharides produced from the hydrolysis of starch. Its monosaccharide constituent is glucose. Dextrin is used as an excipient to control the consistency of foods and pharmaceutical formulations and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material 1. Dextrin is included in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 2. It is also an approved food additive by the U.S. FDA 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
  • Dextrose monohydrate

    Dextrose monohydrate, another name for D-glucose, is a monosaccharide sugar found in plants, usually produced by the hydrolysis of corn starch. As it is a form of glucose, it is rapidly absorbed through the intestine. Dextrose is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Dicalcium phosphate

    Dicalcium phosphate (calcium phosphate, dibasic) is a white, odorless, tasteless powder used both as an excipient and as a source of calcium in dietary supplements. It is widely used in oral pharmaceutical products, food products and toothpastes and is generally regarded as a relatively nontoxic and nonirritant material 1. Calcium phosphate, dibasic is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
  • Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), also known as hypromellose, is a derivative of cellulose. In oral products, HPMC is primarily used as a binder and for encapsulation as an alternative to animal-derived gelatin. In foods, it is used as a thickener and to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures 1. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR172.874).

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
  • Magnesium stearate

    Magnesium stearate, a salt of stearic acid, is widely used in cosmetics, foods, and capsules as a lubricating agent. In dietary supplements it may contain a mixture of magnesium salts of different fatty acids. 
      Magnesium stearate is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR184.1440) and is generally regarded as being nontoxic following oral administration. Oral consumption of large quantities may produce a laxative effect or cause mucosal irritation 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.
  • Microcrystalline cellulose

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MC) is a purified plant fiber that is widely used in food products and in dietary supplement tablets to: 1) bind ingredients together, or 2) help the tablet disintegrate properly.

    Following ingestion, MC is not absorbed by the human body. Because it is not absorbed, it has little potential for toxicity. Consumption of large quantities of cellulose may have a laxative effect, but this is unlikely to be a problem for individuals consuming the small amounts included in dietary supplement tablets 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
  • Silicon dioxide

    Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is added to capsule and tablet formulations to reduce clumping 1. Silica is found in many foods, particularly whole grains (oats and barley), sugar beets, sugar cane, soybeans, turnips, green beans 2. The average intake of silica in adults is 14-21 mg/day 3. The bioavailability of silicate additives is low 4. Silica that occurs in food and water has not been shown to cause any adverse effects 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., 2006.
    2. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism. New York, New York: Elsevier, 1991.
    3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.
    4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
  • Sodium carboxymethylcellulose

    Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is an organic compound related to cellulose. It is used in oral formulations and food products to increase thickness and improve consistency 1. It is poorly absorbed and its safe use by humans has been well established 2. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. Bar, A., Til, H.P., Timonen, M. Subchronic oral toxicity study with regular and enzymatically depolymerized sodium carboxymethylcellulose in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 1995; 33(11): 909-17.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Soy lecithin

    Soy lecithin is a combination of naturally occurring phospholipids extracted during the processing of soybean oil. It consists of three types of phospholipids- phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphotidylinositol. Soy lecithin is used commercially in substances as a natural way to stabilize liquid mixtures. Lecithin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for human consumption with the status generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR184.1400).

  • Stearic acid

    Stearic acid is a naturally occurring fatty acid that is found in animal and vegetable fats. In dietary supplements, it is typically a combination of stearic and palmitic acids. Stearic acid is used as a lubricantin capsules and tablets and is also used widely in cosmetics and food products 1. It is used in topical formulations to assist in mixing ingredients and to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures 2.

    Stearic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR184.1090) and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritating material 1. It is also included in the U.S. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 3.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.
    2. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    3. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm. 2007.
  • Xanthan gum

    Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide produced from the fermentation of plant carbohydrates by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose and mannose 1. It is commonly added to foods, where it serves as a stabilizing agent and a thickener 2. Xanthan gum is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive (21CFR172.695) 3.  Xanthan gum is also used as a skin conditioning agent, to stabilize oil-in-water mixtures and to thicken the texture of cosmetics and personal care products 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    2. Whistler RL, BeMiller JN. Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists. St. Paul, Minn.: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 1999.
  • Xylitol

    Xylitol is a sugar alcohol that occurs naturally in many fruits and berries. It is often used as a sweetener substitute in foods, providing the same sweetness as refined sugars with less food energy 1. Xylitol is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive (21CFR172.395) 2.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

Product Claims

Products

Optimal Support Packets (OSP)

Product Numbers

19801: 56 OSP packets

Country

South Africa

Effective

October 2016

Supersedes

May 2008
  • Quality and Safety
    • Gluten-free
    • Naturally gluten-free
    • Kosher
    • Suitable for vegetarians
    • Suitable for vegans
    • NSF-certified
    • Free from dairy
    • Free from artificial colors and preservatives
    • Contains naturally sourced ingredients
  • Benefits

    2/Day OSP Packets


    • Optimal Support Packets (OSPs) provide an advanced nutritional foundation for a healthy lifestyle.  Formulated to help protect against nutritional deficiencies and oxidative stress, OSP are an answer for life on the go no matter what your nutritional goals.*
    • Each packet provides: 2 PhytoMatrix® caplets, 2 PLUS™ caplets and 1 Ambrotose AO® capsule. For more information about the benefits of these products, go to specific product pages.
    • Nutrition for optimal health and longevity*
    • Provides natural vitamins, plant-sourced minerals and standardized phytochemicals, which may help provide greater health benefits than other types of nutrients*
    • Formulated to deliver many of the vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals you need—all in a convenient form
    • Natural vitamins, plant-sourced minerals and standardized phytochemicals may help offer greater health benefits than other types of nutrients*
    • Formulated with powerful antioxidant support to help protect your cells against the harmful effects of toxins, environmental stress, poor diet and daily physical and oxidative stress—all of which can damage DNA*
    • Provides immune support*
    • Helps protect against cellular damage caused by oxidative stress (free radicals) in your body
    • Combines the MTech AO Blend® formula with the cellular health support offered by Ambrotose® complex and dried fruits and vegetables.  The result—an exceptional, power-packed supplement with antioxidant support designed to help you stay healthy and counter the effects of free radicals*
    • Includes nutrients that help support the endocrine system’s natural function*
    • Supports bone health*
    • Supports prostate health*
    • Supports colon health*
    • Supports breast health*
    • Supports the body’s immune and endocrine systems*
TOP