Product Details

Naturally gluten-free. Suitable for vegetarians.

PhytoBurst nutritional chews, a proprietary blend of plant-sourced minerals, natural vitamin complexes and standardized phytochemicals, help promote good health and vitality.*  Sweeteners and flavors are all-natural. To date, 12 patents have been issued for the PhytoMatrix , PhytoBlend and NutriVerus formulations.

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Ingredients

Functional

  • Aloe vera (inner leaf gel powder)

    Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder  is the powder obtained from the freeze-dried gel from the leaves of the aloe vera plant, Aloe barbadensis.

    For centuries, the plant aloe vera has been used by cultures for its beneficial effects on human health 1. Today aloe vera gel continues to be used in supplements, foods, beverages, and cosmetics. Aloe leaves consist of two major parts, the outer leaf epidermis and the inner leaf gel, which are very different in their chemical composition and properties. Aloe gel is obtained from the inner portion of the leaves. Aloe gel is rich in nutrients and contains an abundant supply of glycoproteins and mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, galactose, arabinose, fucose, glucosamine, fructose, rhamnose and xylose 2.

    Much of the health benefits observed by the use of aloe vera gel may be attributed to its high molecular weight polysaccharides. Before a process was developed to stabilize aloe vera gel or extracts, fresh preparations were regarded as being required for any therapeutic efficacy 3. It has now been shown that careful drying of aloe vera gel can retain the polysaccharide content important for producing many of its health benefits 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 1996.
    2. Duncan, C., Ramberg, J., and Sinnott, R. Striking differences in Aloe vera gel carbohydrate composition, molecular weight and particle size distributions following processing will not be addressed by dietary supplement GMPs. Poster Presentation at the 5th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 17-20, 2008, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.
    3. Gjerstad G, Riner TD. Current status of aloe as a cure-all. Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health 1968;140:58-64.
    4. Ni Y, Turner D, Yates KM, Tizard I. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:1745-55.
  • Biotin (from baker's yeast)

    Biotin is a water-soluble B complex vitamin required for many reactions involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins 1. Biotin is found in many foods such as liver, egg yolk, green vegetables and whole grains.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 300 μg biotin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Boron (from mustard sprout)

    Boron is a trace mineral naturally occurring in many foods, but it is particularly abundant in peanut butter, wine, raisins and nuts. The U.S. FDA has not established a DV for boron, but growing evidence suggests it is essential to human beings. In the U.S., adult men consume a mean of 1.17 mg/day and women consume 0.96 mg/day. Vegetarian adults consume slightly more 1.
      Up to 18 mg/day of boron appears to be safe for adults even if taken for long periods of time. There is no evidence that it is either carcinogenic or mutagenic. No adverse effects have been observed in women taking boron supplements 2.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 3. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Rainey CJ, Nyquist LA, Christensen RE, Strong PL, Culver BD, Coughlin JR. Daily boron intake from the American diet. J Am Diet.Assoc. 1999;99:335-40.
    2. PDR Health Database. www.pdrhealth.com. 2007.
    3. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    4. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Broccoli concentrate (floret)

    Broccoli. The leaves and stem of broccoli, Brassica oleracea italica, are an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin C. Broccoli also contains the additional nutrients protein, fiber, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid and biotin, as well as bioflavonoids 1. Many of these nutrients have antioxidant properties.
    Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are biologically inactive, sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the biologically active metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine 2. Broccoli has a high glucosinolate content compared to other cruciferous vegetables, and broccoli extracts have a particularly high concentration of sulforaphane 3, 4.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.
    3. Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S A 1992;89:2399-403.
    4. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.
  • Chromium (from mustard sprout)

    Chromium is an essential trace element that plays an important role in normal blood sugar regulation. Sources of dietary chromium include high-bran cereals, meats, poultry, fish and some beers and red wines. Only small amounts (<2.5%) of dietary chromium are absorbed through the intestine 1.
      No adverse effects have been associated with chromium intake from food or supplements 1. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 120 μg chromium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Copper (from mustard sprout)

    Copper is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and is present in small amounts in drinking water. Contributors of dietary copper include organ meats, seafood, nuts, wheat bran cereals and whole grain products. Copper is a component of multiple enzymes and is involved in numerous biochemical reactions in human cells, such as the reduction of molecular oxygen, the regulation of gene expression, mitochondrial function/cellular metabolism and the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg copper for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      The risk of adverse effects resulting from excess intake of copper from food, water and supplements appears to be very low in adults, but may be more likely in young children. Excess copper intake can lead to gastrointestinal disturbances and possible liver damage 1.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Cranberry juice concentrate (fruit) standardized to 35% organic acids

    Cranberry juice concentrate. The cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, grows wild in eastern North America and is commonly associated with the holiday of Thanksgiving. Cranberries are consumed as whole berries (fresh or frozen) or as the primary ingredients in cranberry juice and cranberry sauce. Fresh cranberries are rich in fructose and the acids citric, quinic and benzoic 1. They are fairly low in calories and are also a source of fiber, bioflavonoids, potassium and vitamin C 2. When compared with a variety of other common fruits, cranberries contain the largest amount of phenolic antioxidants 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: Intercept, Ltd, 1999.
  • Folate (from baker's yeast)

    Folate is a water-soluble B complex vitamin that is used in the human body for synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids. Food sources of folate include dark green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits and juices, legumes and liver.

    Folate is well tolerated in amounts found in fortified foods and supplements. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 μg folate for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Grape pomace extract standardized to 50% polyphenols

    Grape pomace extract. Grapes, the fruit of the grape vine Vitis vinifera, are the leading fruit crop in the world. Although they are popular as a fresh fruit, grapes are also used to make juices, jams, jelly, raisins and wine 1.  Grape pomace is defined as the pulp, peel, seeds and stalks that remain after oil, water or other liquids have been pressed out. Many health benefits provided by grapes and their products are attributed to their abundant polyphenols. The polyphenols in grapes include resveratrol and flavonoids: quercetin (and its glycoside, rutin), kaempferol, anthocyanins, tannins and myricetin. These compounds are present in the skins, seeds and stems of the grape and many demonstrate potent antioxidant activity 2. Grapes also contain plant acids, sugars, amino acids, minerals and small amounts of vitamins C and E 3, 4.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers grape pomace extract to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as an antioxidant in beverages and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No.125). The U.S. FDA has also assigned GRAS status to grape skin extracts for use in the coloring of drinks and other foods (21CFR73.170).

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Torres JL, Varela B, Garcia MT et al. Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:7548-55.
    3. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. J Clin Lab Anal. 1997;11:287-313.
    4. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
  • Iodine (from mustard sprout)

    Iodine is an essential element required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, normal functioning of the thyroid gland, a gland actively involved in the regulation of metabolism, requires iodine. Humans obtain iodine from their diets. Iodine deficiency is rare in industrialized countries such as the United States due to the enrichment of table salt with iodine. Under normal conditions, the absorption of dietary iodine is greater than 90 percent 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 150 μg iodine for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Iron (from mustard sprout)

    Iron is an essential mineral that primarily functions in the movement of oxygen from the environment to the tissues. There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Sources of heme iron include meat, fish and poultry. Sources of non-heme iron include beans, lentils, flours, cereals and grains. Iron levels are tightly regulated in the human body, mainly by controlling the amount of iron absorbed from food. The proportion of dietary iron absorbed is determined by the iron requirement of the individual; more iron present in the body means less iron is absorbed through the intestine. Heme iron is more easily absorbed than non-heme iron 1.
      The risk of adverse effects from food sources of iron is low. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 18 mg iron for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Manganese (from mustard sprout)

    Manganese is an essential nutrient that activates a number of enzymes involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Dietary manganese can be found in grain products, vegetables and beverages such as tea. Only a small percentage of dietary manganese is absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg manganese for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Molybdenum (from mustard sprout)

    Molybdenum is an essential trace element that functions as a cofactor for a number of enzymes in the body, some of which are involved in the metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides. The molybdenum content of plant foods varies depending upon the soil content in which they are grown. Legumes, grain products and nuts are major contributors of molybdenum to the diet. Dietary molybdenum is efficiently absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 75 μg molybdenum for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Niacin (from baker's yeast)

    Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinamide. Niacin is a precursor to the most central electron carrier substances in living cells, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), thus functioning in many metabolic pathways 1. Foods that contain niacin include beans, liver, fish, poultry and cereal grains.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 20 mg niacin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Pantothenic acid (from baker's yeast)

    Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, is an essential B complex vitamin that is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), a molecule that is involved in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrates and proteins 1. Rich food sources of pantothenic acid include chicken, beef, potatoes, oat cereals, tomato products, liver, kidney, egg yolk, broccoli and whole grains. In commercial supplement products, pantothenic acid is available as calcium or sodium D-pantothenate or as pantothenol. Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 10 mg pantothenic acid for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Red algae (Lithothamnium spp.)

    Red algae (Lithothamnium spp.) are species of algae that are rich in the essential minerals calcium and magnesium and contain a number of trace minerals including manganese, selenium and zinc 1. Lithothamnium species belong to the family of coralline algae, Corallinaceae. They are harvested off the coasts of Britain and France to be used as a source of calcium (calcium carbonate) and magnesium (magnesium carbonate) in dietary supplements.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Frestedt JL, Walsh M, Kuskowski MA, Zenk JL. Nutr J 2008;7:9.
  • Riboflavin (from baker's yeast)

    Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B2, which is involved in numerous metabolic processes and energy production in the body 1.Good dietary sources of riboflavin are milk, eggs, enriched cereals/grains, meats, liver and green vegetables. Riboflavin is commonly found in multivitamin and vitamin B complex preparations.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.7 mg riboflavin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      The limited capacity of humans to absorb orally administered riboflavin limits its potential for harm. No adverse effects associated with riboflavin consumption from food or supplements have been reported 1.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Rutin (from Japanese sophora bud)

    Rutin is a flavonol glycoside comprised of quercetin and rutinose. An antioxidant,1,2 rutin is found in many foods, especially buckwheat, black tea, apple peels, onions and citrus fruits.3
    The flower buds of the Japanese sophora or pagoda tree, Sophora japonica, are a rich source of the bioflavonoid rutin. The buds have been used for centuries in Chinese cultures, and the tree is often used in bonsai horticulture.4

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. La, C.C., Villegas, I., arcon de la, L.C., et al. Evidence for protective and antioxidant properties of rutin, a natural flavone, against ethanol induced gastric lesions. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 71(1-2): 45-53.
    2. Kamel, K.M., bd El-Raouf, O.M., Metwally, S.A., et al. Hesperidin and rutin, antioxidant citrus flavonoids, attenuate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2014; 28(7): 312-9.
    3. PDR Health Database. www. pdrhealth. com. 2007.
    4. Natural Standard Database. www. naturalstandard. com. 2014.
  • Selenium (from mustard sprout)

    Selenium is a trace mineral found in soil, water and some foods. The selenium content of food varies depending on the selenium content of the soil where the animal was raised or the plant was grown. Selenium is an essential element in several metabolic pathways and functions largely through its association with proteins, known as selenoproteins. Known biological functions of selenium include defense against oxidative stress and regulation of thyroid hormone action. Absorption of selenium is efficient with more than 90 percent of selenomethionine, the major dietary form of the element, being absorbed through the intestine 1.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 70 μg selenium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Thiamin (from baker's yeast)

    Thiamin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, also known as vitamin B1. It functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids 1. Dietary sources of thiamin include beef, pork, breads, seeds and whole grain cereals. Dietary thiamin is minimally absorbed through the intestine.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.5 mg thiamin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Vanadium (from mustard sprout)

    Vanadium is a trace element found in foods such as mushrooms, shellfish, black pepper, parsley, grains and grain products. The absorption of ingested vanadium is less than 5 percent 1.
      A biological role of vanadium in humans is unclear. Therefore, neither a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) nor a Daily Reference Value (DRV) has been set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.
  • Vitamin A (as mixed carotenoids from Blakeslea trispora fungus)

    Vitamin A, also called retinol, is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for humans. Adequate intake is important for normal vision and immune function. Dietary vitamin A can be provided as both preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids that are precursors to vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A is abundant in animal-derived foods like liver, kidney, eggs, and dairy products. Carotenoids, like beta-carotene, are found in darkly colored fruits and vegetables. Preformed vitamin A is efficiently absorbed through the intestines, while carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact or cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. The proportion of beta-carotene converted to vitamin A decreases as beta-carotene intake increases, limiting the risk of vitamin A toxicity 1.
      Dietary preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids have vitamin A activity that can be expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) or international units (IU). In the U.S., 1 RAE is equal to 3.33 IU vitamin A. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 5,000 IUs vitamin A for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Blakeslea trispora is a fungus that can be used as a source of carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, gamma-carotene and lycopene, for dietary supplements 2, 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Olempska-Beer Z. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Lycopene from Blakeslea trispora Chemical and Technical Assessment. 2006. College Park, Maryland.
    3. Jeong J, Lee I, Kim S, Park Y. Stimulation of beta-carotene synthesis by hydrogen peroxide in Blakeslea trispora. Biotechnology Letters 1999;21:683–6.
  • Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin)

    Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is commonly found in a variety of animal foods such as fish, shellfish, meat and dairy products. Synthetic vitamin B12 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations and added to supplements and fortified foods such as cereals. An adequate supply of vitamin B12 is essential to maintain healthy nerve cell and red blood cell function, as well as for folate utilization 1 and for normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism 2.

    Blood levels of vitamin B12 tend to decline with age 2, and individuals with lower blood levels may be at greater risk of cognitive decline 4. Higher levels of intake of have been associated with improved cognitive function in elderly subjects 5,6,7.

    No adverse effects have been associated with vitamin B12 intake from food or supplements in healthy individuals 1. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 6 μg vitamin B12 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    Cyanocobalamin is the principal form of vitamin B12 for commercial use in fortified foods and dietary supplements. According to the FDA, cyanocobalamin is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21 CFR184.1945). Once absorbed through the intestine, it is converted to the active forms of vitamin B12 in the body.

     

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Miles LM, Allen E, Mills K, Clarke R, Uauy R, Dangour AD. Vitamin B-12 status and neurologic function in older people: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline trial data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological Function (OPEN) study. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:790-6.
    4. Morris MS, Selhub J, Jacques PF. Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the mini-mental state examination in the Framingham heart study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60:1457-64.
    5. La RA, Koehler KM, Wayne SJ, Chiulli SJ, Haaland KY, Garry PJ. Nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a normally aging sample: a 6-y reassessment. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:20-9.
    6. Walker JG, Batterham PJ, Mackinnon AJ et al. Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms--the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:194-203.
    7. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL et al. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch.Neurol. 2005;62:641-5.
  • Vitamin B6 (from baker's yeast)

    Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and the release of glucose from glycogen 1. Major sources of vitamin B6 include fortified, ready-to-eat cereals; mixed foods (including sandwiches) with meat, fish or poultry as the main ingredient; white potatoes and other starchy vegetables; and non-citrus fruits. Vitamin B6 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
      Vitamin B6 is generally considered safe in adults and children when used appropriately at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg vitamin B6 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 2.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.
  • Vitamin C (from acerola fruit extract)

    Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin found mainly in fruits and vegetables, particularly in citrus fruits such as oranges. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and thereby demonstrates potent antioxidant activity. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to the disease scurvy, which involves the deterioration of elastic tissue, demonstrating the important role of ascorbic acid in the synthesis of connective tissues such as collagen in bones 1. Dietary vitamin C is efficiently absorbed through the intestine.
      Vitamin C is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.8013). The U.S. FDA has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 60 mgs vitamin C for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Acerola extract is obtained from the fruit of the small tree, Malpighia glabra or Malpighia punicifolia. Acerola is grown in tropical regions of the Americas. The fruit is known for being one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C and also contains vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and polyphenols, such as anthocyanins. Acerola fruit extract acts as an antioxidant, likely due to the presence of some of these nutrients 2. Most acerola fruit is processed into fruit products, such as jams, jellies and juices, or added to dietary supplements as a source of vitamin C 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.
    3. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  • Vitamin D (as plant source ergocalciferol)

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in two physiologically relevant forms, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Ergocalciferol is synthesized by plants and mushrooms, while cholecalciferol is synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. Some foods may also be fortified with vitamin D, such as milk and breakfast cereals. The current average daily intakes of vitamin D for Americans are well below suggested adequate intakes1, and much of the world’s population is deficient in this important vitamin 2.

    The main function of vitamin D is to regulate serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals. By influencing the absorption of calcium, vitamin D helps to form and maintain strong bones and teeth 3,4.

    Vitamin D supplementation helps prevent falls and maintain physical performance in the elderly4,5. Adequate vitamin D intake may also be important for maintaining immune health6,7, nervous system health8, may help improve mood during the winter months9,10 and improve overall quality of life11.

    Vitamin D is generally well tolerated at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 international units (IUs) vitamin D for adults and children 4 or more years of age. RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (% DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

    According to the Endocrine Society’s Vitamin D Clinical Practice Guidelines, individuals who are at risk for vitamin D deficiencies should ask their physician to have their blood tested for the vitamin D metabolite [25(OH)D]. For individuals with blood 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/L, higher amounts of vitamin D intake are suitable: children ages 1–18 may need 600–1,000 IU daily,adults >18 age may need 1,500–2,000 IU vitamin D daily12.

     Many Americans Would Benefit from Intake of Supplemental Vitamin D Higher than Current RDAs


    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 2010.
    2. Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos.Int 2009;20:1807-20.
    3. Palacios C. The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:621-8..
    4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. 2010.
    5. Annweiler C, Montero-Odasso M, Schott AM, Berrut G, Fantino B, Beauchet O. Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects. J Neuroeng.Rehabil. 2010;7:50.
    6. van Etten E, Mathieu C. Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2005;97:93-101.
    7. Maggini S, Wintergerst ES, Beveridge S, Hornig DH. Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. Br J Nutr 2007;98 Suppl 1:S29-S35. .
    8. McCann JC, Ames BN. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction? FASEB J 2008;22:982-1001.
    9. Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence? Nutr Rev 2009;67:481-92. 10. .
    10. Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;135:319-23. .
    11. Norman AW, Bouillon R. Vitamin D nutritional policy needs a vision for the future. Exp Biol Med (Maywood.) 2010;235:1034-45.
    12. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1911-30.
  • Vitamin E (as mixed tocopherols from vegetable oil extract (soy, corn, safflower))

    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. In foods, vitamin E exists primarily as mixed tocopherols. Foods that contain vitamin E include: eggs, fortified cereals, fruit, green leafy vegetables, meat, nuts/nut oils, poultry, vegetable oils and whole grains. Vitamin E supplements are available in natural or synthetic forms. While the precise rate of vitamin E absorption is not known with certainty, it is believed to be variable and low. Reported rates of absorption of vitamin E following intake with food have varied from as high as 51%-86% to as low as 21%-29% 1. All forms of vitamin E, including all of the tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues, are absorbed through the intestine in a similar manner.
      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 30 international units (IUs) vitamin E for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Tocopherols, along with tocotrienols, are organic compounds collectively known as vitamin E. Natural tocopherols exist as a mixture of d-alpha-, d-beta-, d-gamma- and d-delta-isoforms, each having antioxidant activities 2. Tocopherols are present in many foods, such as vegetable oils, nuts and grains. They are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods (21CFR182.3890) 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.
    2. Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Jones LS, Shigeri Y. Chemical reactivities and physical effects in comparison between tocopherols and tocotrienols: physiological significance and prospects as antioxidants. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007;104:439-45.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Zinc (from mustard sprout)

    Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for the functioning of approximately 100 different enzymes in the body. It plays a vital role in many biological processes, such as the maintenance of protein structure, the regulation of gene expression and the metabolism of hormones. Zinc is abundant in red meats, certain seafood and whole grains, and many breakfast cereals are fortified with zinc. The proportion of dietary zinc absorbed is determined by the amount of zinc already present in the body, with higher absorption occurring when zinc status is low 1.
      Zinc is regarded as relatively safe and generally well tolerated when taken at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 15 mg zinc for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
      Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years 2. Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc 3.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.
    2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Formulation

  • Brown rice syrup

    Brown rice syrup is a sweetener derived by combining cooked brown rice with enzymes to break down the starches. The final product is roughly 50% soluble complex carbohydrates, 45% maltose and 3% glucose, but the final carbohydrate profile can be adjusted for desired sweetness and usage.

  • Citric acid

    Citric acid occurs naturally in a number of plant species, including lemons and pineapples. It is also found naturally in the human body, mainly in the bones. In food products, citric acid is used as a flavor enhancer for its tart, acidic taste. As an excipient, it is used primarily to adjust the pH (the acidity or alkalinity) of a product 1. It is also used in skin care products for fragrance 2. Citric acid is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 3. It is also included in the U.S. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products 4.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.
    2. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 2006.
    3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
    4. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm. 2007.
  • Fruit juice color

    Fruit juice color is prepared either by expressing the juice from fresh, ripe fruits, or by the water infusion of dried fruits. Fruit juice is approved for use in the coloring of foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR73.250) 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Natural lemon flavor

    Natural lemon flavor is oil extracted from the flavoring constituents of lemons, primarily the peels. Its significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional (21CFR501.22).

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

  • Natural mixed berry with other natural flavors

    Natural flavors are oils or extracts containing the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs or dairy products, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional (21CFR501.22).

  • Organic cane sugar

    Organic cane sugar is sucrose that has been extracted from sugarcane, a tall grass native to tropical regions of Asia.

  • Palm oil

    Palm oil is a commonly used cooking oil obtained from the fruit of the African oil palm tree, Elaeis guineensis. It is the second most abundantly produced vegetable oil in the world, following soybean oil 1. Unrefined palm oils appear reddish in color due to large amounts of provitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene. Red palm oil also contains vitamin E, plant sterols and coenzyme Q10 2. Commercially refined palm oil is used to fry foods and for making margarine, shortening and other products.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
    2. Bonnie TYP, Choo YM. Valuable minor constituents of commercial red palm olein: carotenoids, vitamin E, ubiquinones and sterols. Journal of Oil Palm Research 2000;12:14-24.
  • Sunflower lecithin

    Sunflower lecithin is a mixture of naturally occurring phospholipids derived from sunflower oil. It is used commercially as a natural way to stabilize oil-in-water liquid mixtures. The primary phospholipids in sunflower lecithin are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid 1. Sunflower lecithin can be used as an alternative for some of the more commonly used lecithins from soybean and canola oils.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Cabezas DM, Diehl BWK, Tomas MC. Sunflower lecithin: application of a fractionation process with absolute ethanol. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 2009;86:189-96.
  • Tapioca syrup

    Tapioca syrup is made from the tapioca starch extracted from the roots of the tropical cassava plant, Manihot esculenta. The form of tapioca familiar to most people is the pearl tapioca found in pudding. Tapioca syrup is used as a sweetener substitute in place of corn syrup.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

  • Turmeric (color)

    Turmeric is a spice derived from the roots of the tropical plant Curcuma longa. It is a major ingredient of curry powder used in a lot of Indian food. Turmeric is used both for its flavor and orange-yellow coloring. Its health benefits are primarily attributed to the presence of curcuminoids, such as curcumin. Turmeric and turmeric extract are approved for use as food additives by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1.

    Expand References

    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.
  • Vegetable juice color

    Vegetable juice color is prepared either by expressing the juice from fresh, ripe vegetables, or by the water infusion of dried vegetables. Vegetable juice is approved for use in the coloring of foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR73.260) 1.

    This ingredient can also be found in the following products:

    Expand References

    References

    1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Product Claims

Products

PhytoBurst® Chews

Product Numbers

12817: 60 PhytoBurst Chews

Country

South Africa

Effective

October 2016

Supersedes

January 2012
  • Quality and Safety
    • Gluten-free
    • Naturally gluten-free
    • Suitable for vegetarians
    • Suitable for vegans
    • Free from dairy, artificial flavors, artificial colors, MSG, preservatives
    • Proprietary formula
    • Real Food TechnologySM solutions product
    • Contains naturally sourced ingredients
    • No synthetic vitamins
    • All-natural vitamin and mineral blends
    • All-natural sweeteners
    • All-natural [flavoring/flavors]
  • General Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Super nutritional chews
    • Concentrations of nutrients from nature
    • Mineral rich super chew
    • Helps protect against nutritional deficiencies*
    • Helps promote good health and vitality*
    • Helps support healthy aging*
    • The vitamins and minerals in PhytoBurst chews help protect against nutritional deficiencies*
    • Promotes good health and vitality*
    • Comprehensive multi-vitamin and mineral formula to promote good health and vitality*
    • PhytoBurst chews, as a supplement to good nutrition, helps support longevity and vitality*
    • PhytoBurst chews, as part of a healthy lifestyle (diet and exercise), supports longevity and vitality*
  • Antioxidant Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • High ORAC dietary supplement*
    • Powerful antioxidant*
    • Powerful antioxidant formula*
    • A measure of antioxidant capacity is ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity). PhytoBurst chews scored high on the ORAC scale, with two chews delivering 4360 μM TE.*
    • Antioxidant support from plant sourced ingredients*
    • Natural vitamin C from acerola cherry, rutin from Japanese Sophora bud, selenium from mustard sprouts, mixed tocopherols from plant oils, carotenoids from Blakeslea trispora, and polyphenols from grape—all provide antioxidant support.*
    • Natural/plant-sourced antioxidants in PhytoBurst chews are intended to help protect cells from free radical damage.*
    • Food-based antioxidant blend
    • Antioxidants from plants and berries
    • Delivers an array of important antioxidants to help protect cells from the damaging effects of oxidative stress*
    • PhytoBurst chews are intended to offer protection from free radicals that can damage healthy cells and promote the aging process.*
    • Helps provide protection from free radical damage*
    • May provide cells with protection from free-radical induced aging*
    • Helps protect cells, tissues, and organs in the body against the effects of free radicals, which are associated with aging.*
    • The antioxidants in PhytoBurst chews help support healthy aging.*
    • Contains phytonutrients from broccoli, cranberry and grape, in addition to a flavonoid called rutin, which provide antioxidant support.*
  • Immune System Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Supports normal immunity*
    • Provides immune system support*
    • PhytoBurst chews contain nutrients that support normal immunity.*
    • Immune system support provided by natural vitamins and plant-sourced minerals (vitamins A [beta-carotene], B6, B12, C, D, E, and folic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, and iron)*
    • Immune system support is provided by vitamins and minerals in PhytoBurst chews.*
    • Nutrients that play a pivotal role in supporting normal immunity include vitamins A (beta-carotene), B6, B12, C, D, E, and folic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, and iron.*
  • Cardiovascular Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Helps nourish the cardiovascular system*
    • Helps maintain healthy levels of homocysteine*
    • Helps support heart health*
    • Helps support a normal healthy cardiovascular system*
    • Folic acid is needed to make red blood cells and to maintain healthy levels of homocysteine – a naturally occurring compound in the body that may damage arteries when levels are elevated. Supplementation with folic acid alone or with vitamins B12 or B6 may decrease blood levels of homocysteine.*
    • PhytoBurst chews contain nutrients that work together to keep blood vessels healthy. For example, antioxidants like vitamin C help protect artery walls.*
    • The vitamin C in PhytoBurst chews helps protect artery walls to help keep blood vessels healthy.*
    • The cardiovascular system is nourished by vitamins B6, B12, C, E, and niacin, folic acid and calcium.*
    • Nutrients in PhytoBurst chews that help support, maintain, and protect [heart health/cardiovascular health] include vitamins B6, B12, C, E, and niacin, folic acid and calcium.*
  • Vision Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Supports healthy eyesight*
    • Eyesight is nourished by vitamins A, C, E and the mineral zinc.*
    • Contributes to the [support/maintenance/protection] of [eye health/eyesight]*
    • Contains vitamins and minerals which may [support/maintain/protect] [eye health/eyesight]. These nutrients include vitamins A, C, E and the mineral zinc.*
  • Bone and Joint Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Contributes to the maintenance of healthy bones*
    • Supports healthy joints*
    • Support for healthy bones is provided by the minerals calcium, boron, zinc, copper and manganese, as well as vitamins C and D.*
    • PhytoBurst chews supply minerals and vitamins that support healthy bones.*
    • Joint health is supported by nutrients including vitamins C and E, niacin, and beta-carotene.*
  • Breast and Prostate Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Nutrients that help support breast health include beta-carotene/vitamin A and folic acid*
    • Provides a natural [source/form] of folic acid, a nutrient important to [men’s/women’s] health*
    • PhytoBurst chews include selenium, which may help protect prostate health.*
  • Skin Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Good nutrition is important for healthy skin
    • May contribute to skin renewal.*
    • The antioxidants in PhytoBurst chews may help protect the skin during normal sunlight exposure.*
    • PhytoBurst chews also provide nutrients that play a role in skin renewal, such as vitamin A and zinc. In addition, PhytoBurst chews also provide the co-factor vitamin C for the body’s synthesis of collagen.*
  • Energy Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Helps to keep your energy going*
    • Helps support the production of energy in the body*
    • Contains nutrients that support energy*
    • Perfect pick-me-up during a long workout or a great mid-afternoon slump buster
    • Contains natural sugars and B vitamins to help maintain energy levels
    • PhytoBurst chews contain a full complement of B vitamins to help trigger the release of energy from the food we eat*
    • May help trigger the release of energy from the foods we eat*
    • Many vitamins work together to help convert carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into ATP, the form of energy needed to fuel body functions. Particularly important are the B vitamins: B6, thiamin, riboflavin, biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid.
    • Chromium plays a key role in energy production by helping move glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into cells where it can metabolized into energy.
    • PhytoBurst chews contain nutrients that support energy, including vitamin B6 and thiamin, riboflavin, biotin, pantothenic acid, niacin, and chromium.*
    • B vitamins help support the production of energy in the body.*
    • PhytoBurst chews provide vitamin and mineral blends courtesy of Mother Nature that enables the body to tap into its natural form of energy.*

     

  • Natural Benefits

    2-6/Day PhytoBurst Chews


    • Vitamin and mineral blends and phytonutrients derived from nature
    • Vitamin and mineral blends as nature intended
    • Provides a natural source of concentrated minerals
    • Plant-sourced mineral blend
    • Natural vitamin complex
    • A vitamin + mineral + phytochemical supplement in a natural plant matrix
    • A concentrated complex of food source vitamins/minerals/phytochemicals
    • PhytoBurst chews provide vitamin and mineral blends that are sourced from nature
    • Vitamin and mineral blends sourced from nature
    • Vitamin and mineral blends and phytonutrients [inspired by/compliments of/courtesy of] Mother Nature
    • PhytoBurst chews contain mineral blends sourced from plants and algae.
    • The vitamin and mineral blends and phytonutrients in PhytoBurst chews are from natural sources.
    • Vitamin and mineral blends from natural sources
    • The vitamin and mineral blends provided by PhytoBurst chews are in a form resembling vitamin and minerals provided by foods.
    • Made with nutrients found in nature
    • Provide your family with vitamins and minerals sourced from plants.
    • Contains fruit and vegetable concentrates
    • Natural sweeteners provide delicious and all-natural flavoring
    • Provides mixed carotenoids and mixed tocopherols, which are natural and safe forms of vitamins A and E, respectively.
    • Mixed carotenoids convert to vitamin A in the body as needed, providing benefits without the risk of vitamin A toxicity.
    • Mixed carotenoids are precursors to vitamin A and are converted to vitamin A as needed by the body. This form provides benefits without the risk of vitamin A toxicity.
    • PhytoBurst chews provide vitamin A in the form of its precursors, mixed carotenoids, a safe and natural form.
    • Vitamin E is present as mixed tocopherols, a natural form of vitamin E
    • Standardized phytochemicals
    • A source of important phytochemicals/phytonutrients including glucosinolates from broccoli, organic acids from cranberry, polyphenols from grape pomace, and rutin.
    • A growing body of science is demonstrating that glucosinolates and sulforaphanes are responsible for many of the positive health effects of the broccoli family vegetables.
    • Contains phytonutrients from broccoli, cranberries, and grapes.
    • Contains 22 vitamins and minerals as well as a powerful blend of phytonutrients including aloe and broccoli concentrate
    • Includes health benefitting [bioflavonoids/flavonoids]
    • Vitamin C may be more beneficial when consumed with other phytonutrients (such as flavonoids and aloe)
    • Natural source vitamin C consumed with other natural antioxidant vitamins (mixed carotenoids and mixed tocopherols) and phytochemicals has a greater antioxidant effect than ascorbic acid alone.
    • Foods contain vitamin E in the form of mixed tocopherols.
    • PhytoBurst chews contain minerals sequestered in edible plant tissue; a natural vegetable source.
    • Minerals need to be soluble to be absorbed. Minerals in a plant matrix were shown to be more soluble in simulated digested fluids than minerals in other multivitamins.
    • A simulated digestion and solubility study showed that solubility and potential bioavailability of minerals from a natural plant-based source, such as that in PhytoBurst chews, may be superior to that from a standard multi-vitamin.
    • A laboratory study mimicking the conditions in the human stomach demonstrated that plant-based minerals can be more soluble than other forms of minerals in supplements.
    • Vitamin C can enhance the absorption of iron and chromium.
    • PhytoBurst chews contain minerals in a plant-based matrix that may be more soluble than minerals provided in other commercial multivitamins.
    • Soluble plant fibers may improve mineral absorption.
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